Abiola T, Dibie DC, Akinwale OJ and Shomuyiwa OA
Background: Reports exist of the allopathic use of dates as a hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-diabetic agent. Date palm seed have also been found to be of nutritional and medicinal value.
Aim: this study was aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic potential of the ethanolic extract of date palm seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Methodology: Proximate composition of date palm seed was determined using standard methods. Ethanolic extract of date palm seed was prepared by crude extraction protocol. The total flavonoids, phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacity of the seed extract was determined. Also, the scavenging activity of the extract using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and the reducing power was also evaluated. Thirty wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of six rats each. Group A was the control group, group B received date palm seed extract only (200 mg/kg bw) i.p, group C, D and E were the diabetic groups that received alloxan (150 mg/kg bw) intra peritoneally; group C was the diabetic control group, group D and group E were treated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg bw) and date palm seed extract (400 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for fourteen days. At the end of the experiment, the lipid profile parameters (HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol and triglyceride) levels were determined from serum samples of the animals. Levels of glucose and antioxidant parameters (SOD, CAT, GSH and MDA) were also analysed from the serum samples of the experimental animals.
Results: Results of proximate analysis revealed fiber to be highest (61.75%), carbohydrate (20.95%), fat (8.55%), moisture (3.40%), ash (2.79%) and protein (2.63%). The total flavonoid and phenolic content of date palm seed was found to be 45.28 ± 0.32 mg/100 g and 28.22 ± 0.43 mg/100 g respectively while the total antioxidant capacity was 30.11 ± 0.21 mg/100 g. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the levels of LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose with no significant (P>0.05) increase in the HDL of the diabetic treated groups as compared to the diabetic control group. A significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the SOD, CAT, GSH levels while there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the MDA level of the diabetic group treated with date palm seed extract as compared to the diabetic control group.
Conclusion: This study suggests the anti-diabetic potential of date palm seed extract which might be due to its hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties.