Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

ISSN - 2155-6156



Endothelial Function in Pre-diabetes, Diabetes and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: A Review

Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Matteo Cameli, Annagrazia Cecere, Francesca Cortese, Ilaria Dentamaro, Francesco Gentile, Michele Gesualdo, Maria Maiello, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Salvatore Novo, Pasquale Palmiero, Pier Sergio Saba, Annapaola Zito, Anna Vittoria Mattioli and Roberto Pedrinelli, on behalf of the Working

Diabetes mellitus worsens cardiovascular risk profile of affected individuals. Its worldwide increasing prevalence and its negative influences on vascular walls morphology and function are able to induce the expression of several morbidities which worsen the clinical conditions of the patients getting them running towards a reduced survival curve.

Although overt diabetes increases the mortality rate of individuals due to its pathogenesis, poor information are in literature about the role of pre-diabetes and family history of diabetes mellitus in the outcome of general population.

This emphasizes the importance of early detection of vascular impairment in subjects at risk of developing diabetes.

The identification of early stages of atherosclerotic diseases in diabetic persons is a fundamental step in the risk stratification protocols followed-up by physicians in order to have a complete overview about the clinical status of such individuals. Common carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated vasodilatation, pulse wave velocity are instrumental tools able to detect the early impairment in cardiovascular system and stratify cardiovascular risk of individuals.

The aim of this review is to get a general perspective on the complex relationship between cardiovascular diseases onset, pre-diabetes and family history of diabetes. Furthermore, it points out the influence of diabetes on heart function till the expression of the so-called diabetic cardiomyopathy.