Pawel Skowronek, Pawel Piatkiewicz, Andrzej Lewandowicz and Agnieszka Maksymiuk-Klos
Hip fractures with the numbers about 1.6 million over the world in 2000 are serious health problem which drastically limits the functionality and increases mortality in geriatric population. Peritrochanteric and neck hip fractures result from the reduction of mineral bone density or impaired quality, however age related co-morbidities add additional risk related to increased incidence of falls. The one of the diseases found to increase hip fractures incidence and associated mortality is diabetes which currently affects 415 million adults over the world with increasing prevalence, predicted to 642 million by 2040. Type 1 diabetes contributes to fragility by unfavorable changes in bone metabolism. Although type 2 diabetes effects on bone may be paradoxically opposed, it still increases risk of falls and hip fractures. The causes of increased fractures risk via precedent falls comprise of diabetic angio and neuropathic complications affecting central nervous system, vision, balance and also results from polypharmacy. Diabetes influences also the postoperative period, deteriorating wounds healing and promoting sores formation. The scope of diabetes impact on hip fractures risk and orthopaedic surgery results should be particularly considered together with proper glycemic control to prevent postoperative complications and improve patient prognosis.