Tagliente I, Digilio G, Ullmann N, Solvoll T, Trieste L, Murgia F, Bella S, Bini F and Schiaffini R
Background: Diabetes is a hormonal disorder that affects an estimated three hundred million people worldwide. In this review (meta-analysis) of the literature, we carefully analyzed the limits and methods of the management of diabetes in adolescents and adults. Objective: The study focused on the identification of technologies and therapeutic procedures currently used and tried to identify possible factors for future improvement. Methods: The literature review was carried out on search engines like: PubMed, ADA, Google Scholar and Google Patents. According to our search criteria, the selected articles were analyzed regarding evidence and critical issues reported by patients and clinicians. The results were then compared with the recalls of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Results: The currently in use drugs and the insulin infusion systems vary a lot and simultaneous develop of new technology adds to existing chaos. This study revealed possible areas for improvements both from a technological and a medical point of view. For instance: the multiple causes related to the different timing of insulin absorption according to the insertion site, the design of new algorithms focused on simplification of practical activities, and the identification of new methods for training patients and families on the different device?s functions. Moreover, some critical points were emerged related to the current limitations and lack of interchangeability between sensors for monitoring vital parameters. This condition restricts the correct sensor selection according to the patient?s personal preference, age and needs. However, the lack of interchangeability between different devices limits the choice of the most appropriate monitoring software and data storage. Conclusions: The collaboration between medical doctors and biomedical engineers is of great importance when analyzing available medical devices for the purpose, identifies possible weaknesses, technical problems, and areas for improvements. Moreover, multi-specialist collaboration is important to conceive new methods of training for patients and families.