Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

ISSN - 2155-6156

+441518081309

Review Article - (2015) Volume 6, Issue 7

A Review on Role of Plant(s) Extracts and its Phytochemicals for the Management of Diabetes

Govindappa M*
Department of Biotechnology, Shridevi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding Author: Govindappa M, Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Shridevi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sira Road, Tumkur-572 106, Karnataka, India, Tel: +91-7204238327, Fax: +910816-2212628 Email: ,

Abstract

The present review focused on plant extracts or phytochemicals role in diabetes management has been tried by many researchers. I have attempted to compile a list of total 419 plant species belongs to 133 families have been used for in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The plant extract or phytochemicals have involved in decreasing or increasing or stimulating different mechanisms in reducing diabetes and they have been listed in tabular form. By this review, few molecules are used in diabetes management and they possess molecular mechanisms or involved in signal transduction to initiate the insulin production or utilization of blood glucose level bring down to normal stage. The researchers have used different parts of the plant extracts or individual phytochemicalsfor antidiabetic activities. This review brings the researcher data on antidiabetic activities of different plant extracts role in reducing of diabetic problems.

Keywords: Plant extracts; Antidiabetic activity; Mechanism of action

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein, is caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin secretion and different levels of insulin resistance and it is resulting from both genetic predisposition and favoring environmental factors. In the patients, late complications develop consisting of alterations and failure of various organs (especially the non-insulin sensitive ones) including the eyes (retinopathy with vision loss), kidneys (nephropathy leading to renal failure), nerves (peripheral and autonomic neuropathy), heart and blood vessels (precocious and severe cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular atherosclerosis) [1,2].

People with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Globally the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 2.8 % in 2000 and 4.4 % in 2030. Worldwide, the total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 [3]. More than 80% of diabetes deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (WHO, 2011). Comparative data was given by differentiating Diabetes Mellitus 1 (DM 1) and Diabetes Mellitus 2 (DM 2)(Table 1).

Feature Type 1 DM Type 2 DM
Frequency 10-20% 80-90%
Age at onset Early (below 35 years) Late (after 40 years)
Type of onset Abrupt and severe Gradual and insidion
Weight Normal Obese/non-obese
Family history <20% About 60%
Genetic locus Unknown Chromosome 6
Pathogenesis Autoimmune destruction of β-Cells Insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion
Islet cell antibodies Yes No
Blood insulin level Decreased insulin Normal or increased insulin
Islet cell changes Insulitis, β-cell depletion No insulitis, later fibrosis of islets.
Clinical management Insulin and diet Diet, exercise, oral drugs, insulin
Acute complications Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar coma

Table 1: Comparing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [28].

The recent survey studies of diabetes of the International Diabetic Federation (IDF) estimate about 8.3 % of adults, over all 382 million people all over the world and in India about 65.1 million people were having diabetes. It will reach beyond 592 million in further 25 years. Presently, still 175 million people were undiagnosed. Unknowingly there was the vast number of people were suffering from the diabetic complications. But 80 % of diabetic affected people were from low and middle income countries. This is becoming a great threat to the human beings and stepping towards an alarming rate [4].

Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were estimated from the data provided by 219 countries and territories for the year 2013. These were grouped under seven IDF regions. AFR (Africa) 20 M, EUR (Europe) 56 M, MENA (Middle East and North Africa) 35 M, NAC (North America and Caribbean) 37 M, SACA (South and Central America) 24 M, SEA (South East Asia) 72 M, WP (West Pacific) 138 M and 382 M people were suffering from diabetes worldwide(Table 2). Table 3 predicting the diabetes prevalence in 2035 compared with existing data of 2013 of 10 top countries [4].

IDF Code Seven IDF regions Prevalence of diabetes  for 2013 (M-millions) Diabetic deaths under 60 years of age people in 2013 (%) Diabetic expenditure (USD) in 20 to 79 years of age group (Billions)
AFR Africa 20 M 76 4
EUR Europe 56 M 28 147
MENA Middle East and North Africa 35 M 50 14
NAC North America and Caribbean 37 M 38 263
SACA South and Central America 24 M 44 26
SEA South East Asia 72 M 55 6
WP West Pacific 138 M 44 88

Table 2: Diabetic prevalence, deaths and expenditure estimated from the data provided by 219 countries and territories for the year 2013 [4]

.

Top 10 Countries Diabetic people in 2013 (millions) Countries Diabetic people by 2035 (millions)
1 China 98.4 China 142.7
2 India 65.1 India 109
3 USA 24.4 USA 29.7
4 Brazil 11.9 Brazil 19.2
5 Russian Federation 10.9 Mexico 15.7
6 Mexico 8.7 Indonesia 14.1
7 Indonesia 8.5 Egypt 13.1
8 Germany 7.6 Pakistan 12.8
9 Egypt 7.5 Turkey 11.8
10 Japan 7.2 Russian Federation 11.2

Table 3: Top 10 diabetic countries/ territories under 20-79 years of age group in 2013 and expected to be in 2035.

The projections of top ten countries from the current prevalence indicates that, China remains the top most country in having highest diabetic people, i.e., around 98.4 million in 2013 and an estimate of 142.7 million by 2035. India stands behind the China in having second highest diabetic people, i.e. around 65.1 million in 2013 and an estimate of 109 million by 2035.

Diabetes is a complex multisystemic disorder characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and disturbances in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism [5]. The International Diabetes Federation has predicted that the number of individuals with diabetes will increase from 240 million in 2007 to 380 million in 2025 with 80% of the disease burden in low and middle-income countries [6].

Modern lifestyle, advanced food habits, less physical work, mental workloads and other parameters may be responsible for diabetes which was seen in high income families. It is confirmed by a survey conducted by IDF that, low income groups were having least diabetes prevalence when compared to the groups of increased income groups.

It is expected to be the biggest economic burden of national health services, families, social health services and countries to manage the diabetes and its complications. For diabetes itself, it accounts 10.8% of gross expenditure on health worldwide in 2013. 90 % of countries were spent 5-18% of overall health expenditure for only to the diabetes management. Expenditure on health involves spending by individual diabetic people, families or health systems or government on diabetes management.

Around 548 billion USD was spent on the management of diabetes and its complications in 2013 all over the world. It may be even projected to exceed 627 billion USD by 2035. In terms of International Dollars (ID), the expenditure on diabetes management was estimated 581 billion ID in 2013 and 678 billion ID at 2035. It is estimated that, an average of 1,437 USD (1,522 ID) was spent on diabetes management globally per person in the year 2013.

It is unfortunate that the most diabetic prevalent regions were spending less amount in treating diabetes and the proportion of deaths due to diabetes in these regions were very high. It was found that, highest diabetic mortality, i.e., 76% in Africa and 55% in South-East Asia.

Ethnobotanical information indicates that more than 800 plants are used as traditional remedies for the treatment of diabetes due to their effectiveness, less side effects and low cost [7]. Plant extracts or individual phytochemical or group of phytocehmical has exhibited the many reactions or mechanisms to reduce the diabetes status. These extracts decreased or increased or stimulates the number reactions to reduce or minimize the risks of the diabetes in animal experiments. The Tables 4 and 5 clearly indicated the different process are carried out by plant extracts/ phytochemicals in reducing the problem of diabetes. Based on these evidences conclude that, all the plant extracts reported have not had similar mechanisms of action and serving various processes by inhibiting or increasing or stimulating to minimize the diabetes in animals. The plant extracts have evidence that, they recovered the various organs get affected of malfunctioned due to diabetes. The extracts have ability to change in the structure and functions of affected parts viz., regeneration of β-cells of pancreas, initiation of receptor and ligand interactions in productions of insulin, activation of signal transduction for production of insulin and reduction of blood glucose level, initiation of number of liver enzymes for conversion of sugar into various products or limiting the production of byproducts etc. Some of the extracts have acted as insulin like activity or induce the activity of insulin and some the extracts inhibited the activity of enzymes viz., α-amylase, α-glucosidase etc. The growth of herbal research in the diabetes management of diabetes was increase from past 20 years. The Asia stands first followed by Africa. The use of plant parts percent as follows, leaves (35%) followed by whole plant (12%), fruits (13%), seed (12%), root (9%), stem (8%), aerial (7%) and flower parts (2%).

Family Number of plants Family Number of plants
Acanthaceae 08 Liliaceae 04
Achariaceae 01 Linaceae 01
Acoraceae 01 Loganiaceae 06
Actinidaceae 01 Loranthaceae 02
Agavaceae 02 Lythraceae 05
Aizoaceae 04 Palmaceae 01
Alangiaceae 01 Papilionaceae 01
Alliaceae 01 Passifloraceae 01
Apiaceae 03 Piperaceae 04
Annoaceace 03 Malvaceae 05
Araceae 01 Melastomataceae 01
Araliaceae 04 Meliaceae 02
Arecaceae 02 Menispermaceae 03
Asteraceae 13 Moraceae 05
Amaranthaceae 05 Moringaceae 01
Anacardiaceae 03 Melianthaceae 01
Apocynaceae 06 Mimosaceae 02
Asclepidaceae 04 Molluginaceae 01
Balanitiaceae 01 Myricaceae 02
Basellaceae 01 Myrsinaceae 01
Berberidaceae 03 Myrtaceae 07
Bignoniaceae 06 Musaceae 02
Bixaceae 01 Nyctaginaceae 03
Bombacaceae 05 Nymphaeaceae 03
Boraginaceae 03 Oleaceae 04
Brassicaceae 03 Onagraceae 01
Burseraceae 02 Orchidaceae 02
Caesalpiniaceae 04 Oxalidaceae 02
Campanulaceae 01 Pandanaceae 03
Capparaceae 02 Papilionaceae 01
Capparidaceae 03 Phyllanthaceae 02
Caricaeae 01 Piperaceae 04
Caryophyllaceae 02 Poaceae 02
Celastraceae 03 Polygalaceae 03
Cecropiaceae 03 Polygonaceae 02
Chenopodiaceae 07 Polypodiaceae 01
Chrysobalanaceae 01 Portulacaceae 03
Costaceae 03 Primulaceae 01
Combretaceae 10 Punicaceae 01
Compositae 10 Rhamnaceae 02
Convolvulaceae 06 Rhizophoraceae 02
Crassulaceae 01 Rosaceae 10
Crussulaceae 01 Rubiaceae 07
Cucurbitiaceae 06 Ranunculaceae 04
Cupressaceae 01 Rutaceae 02
Dilleniaceae 01 Salicaceae 01
Ebenaceae 04 Salvadoraceae 03
Elaegnaceae 01 Sapindaceae 03
Equisetaceae 02 Sapotaceae 04
Eucommiaceae 01 Scrophulariaceae 02
Euphorbiaceae 07 Solanaceae 12
Fabaceae 14 Sterculiaceae 06
Fagaceae 01 Strelitziaceae 01
Flacourtiaceae 01 Symplocaceae 01
Fomitopsidaceae 01 Tiliaceae 01
Geraniaceae 01 Theaceae 01
Gentianaceae 07 Thymelaeaceae 02
Hericiaceae 01 Verbenaceae 05
Hippocrateaceae 02 Violaceae 01
Hypericaceae 01 Vitaceae 01
Hypodoxiaceae 01 Ulmaceae 01
Irvingiaceae 01 Umbelliferae 03
Juglandaceae 01 Urticaceae 04
Labiatae 05 Xanthorrhoeaceae 02
Lamiaceae 04 Zingiberaceae 06
Lauraceae 04 Zygophyllaceae 04
Leguminosae 09    
Note: total 419 plants from 133 families.

Table 4: Number family plants were selected which were exhibited as antidiabetic plants.

Increases Decreases Stimulation of reactions
Liver hexokinase Adipogenes of 3T3-L1 cells Activated the PKB by SV473 and thr 308 physphorylation
Pancreatic secretion of insulin from β-cells of islets Lipolysis in 3T3-4 adipocytes Consumption of proinsulin to insulin
Spleen increase a-amylase, a-gluvosidase, glutathione, glycogen Sizes of β-cells of pancreas
Glyconeogenesis and gluconeogenesis Absorption of glucose from Gastrointestinal tract Liver ACC phosphorylation and muscle GLUT4
Blood urea Aldose reductase activity Activation of opioid µ receptor of peripheral tissues
Glucose metabolism and uptake Activity of disaccharides in the intestine Expression of insulin receptor a subunit
Glycogen content Blood glucose nitrogen Insulin receptor substrate-1
High Density Lipoproteins Cholesterol (HDL-C) Bilirubin Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)
mRNA expansion of PPARa and PPARy Glycosylated HbA1 level Amino acids
Urine output and water intake Glucose reabsorption CYP through CYP2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase, insulin like effects stimulates insulin secretion
Lipid profiles Basal endogenous glucose Blood hormone insulin and albumin level
Insulin secretion Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ATP sensitive potassium channel in pancreas β-cells
Fasting glucose level Hydroperoxide and glucoplasmin CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, 3A4,
Liver enzymes SOD (SuperOxide Dismutase), catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GPa) Glycosylated haemoglobin Pregnane X receptor
Insulin biding on insulin receptor Serum alkaline phosphatase GSK3 phosphorylation in L6 myotubes help for glycogen synthesis
Glycoxylase 1 activity in liver Lucose tolerance level Regeneration of β-cells
Creatinine kinase level in tissues Food and water intake Post-prandial blood glucose
Glucosylated hbA1c Free radical formation in tissues Restoring insulin level
Urea nitrogen Glucose absorption in intestine Protective function of heart
Peripheral glucose utilization Monoaldehyde Intiates the insulin release
Liver glycogen and serum insulin Glycosylated Hb Halt the oxidase stress and dylipidema
Free fatty acids Malondialdehyde level in liver and tissues Stimulates glycogemesis
Haemoglobin Plasma lipid and insulin level Insulin secretageogue activity
Melonyldialdehyde total protein Plasma triglycerides-ALT, AST, aminotransferase level Effect of pancreas β-cells count
Glucose absorption Blood glucose/serum glucose level Tubular necrosis and mild fatty acid changes in kidney and liver
c-peptide level Activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-6-biphosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid accumulation, in differentiated adipocytes Liver enzymes activation (ALP, GPT, GGT, GOT etc)
cAMP in pancreas islets CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and glucose transporter (GLUT4) Swelling and necrotic cells in pancreas
β-cells function and survive LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol Expression of homeostatin enzymes (glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, phosphophenol pyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase, insulin II
Glucose uptake in MAC-12 hepatocytes L6 myotubes Serum creatinine Protein kinase activation in liver and skeletal muscle
  Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), SGPT (pyruvate) Insulin like activity
  Urea, uric acid Stimulates muscle cells glucose and amino acid uptake
  Activation of epinephrine on glucose metabolism Glycation inhibitors
  Urinary glucose  
  Neoglycogenesis  

Table 5: Role of plant extracts and its phytochemicals in decrease or increase or stimulation of reactions for the management of diabetes through different process.

Several studies have shown protection in body weight loss, anti-diabetic activity [8,9], reduction in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, total protein and blood urea [10] and recovery in liver glycogen content.

Insulin is secreted in pancreatic β-cells in response to increase in postprandial blood glucose level. Glucose seems to be the nutrient responsible for insulin secretion and the process called glucose stimulated insulin secretion[11]. Glucose transporters, GLUT1 allow the glucose molecules to enter into the cells and start the first phase of insulin secretion. Glucose-6-phosphate is phosphorylated from glucose by glucokinase enzyme [12]. The generation of ATP by glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain close the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) [13], allowing sodium (Na+) entry without balance. These two events depolarize the membrane and open voltage-dependent T-type calcium (Ca2+) and sodium (Na+) channels. Na+ and Ca2+ entry further depolarizes the membrane and voltage-dependent calcium channels open. This activation increases intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+] i) [14], this leads to the fusion of insulin containing secretory granules, plasma membrane in the first phase of secretion of insulin [15,16].

The intracellular glucose has been utilized by insulin in several ways. The increased level of insulin influences the activity of gluconeogenic enzymes that results in the initiation of hepatic glycolysis. All types of cells contain hexokinase. Hexokinase D or glucokinase is more specific for glucose and differ with other forms of hexokinase in kinetic and regulatory properties, which has been found in hepatocytes [17]. Hexokinase plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, it catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6- phosphate. Also, hexokinase is an important regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver [18].

Second, insulin secreting phase is triggered by metabolic coupling signals which are generated through the glucose metabolism apart from increasing in the ATP/ADP ratio. Metabolism and anaplerosis cycles were processed by the participation of some coupling factors in the mitochondria. This involves the NADPH, maleate, citrate, acyl-co-A, pyruvate, glutamate and isocitrate [19]. Glucose induced secretion of insulin was also contributed by CAMKII and diverse signalling pathways [20,21], PKA [22,23], PKC [24,25] and yPKG [26,27]. Most secretagogues and insulin secretory potentiators, neurotransmitters, nutritive substances and hormones were come across in the modulation of insulin secretion through these pathways.

The present review was aimed to role of plants in diabetes management in-vitro and in-vivo conditions was discussed in Table 4. This report gives a brief information on plant extracts mechanism of action in reducing diabetes.

Materials And Methods

Totally 419 plants belonging to 133 families information were collected and studied and based on family wise distinguished and made in tabulated form (Table 5). All the plants have possessed different mechanisms of activities by increasing or decreasing or stimulation of reaction in diabetes management (Table 6).

Plant Name Extracts or Active phytochemical Mechanism of action References
Primulaceae
Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco Flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and steroids Reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and increase activity of liver hexokinase [29]
Arecaceae
Areca catechu Plant extract (arecaine and arecoline) Reduction in blood glucose levels, pancreatic secretion of insulin from existing β-cells of islets [30]
Chamaerops humilis L. Leaf extract Decreased plasma glucose level, increase in the weight, decreased total cholesterol and triglyecerides [31]
Acanthaceae
Acanthus    ilicifolius Plant extracts (flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, and steroids) Reduced the blood glucose level and better regeneration of β-cells [32]
Andrographis paniculata Nees Plant extract (diterpenoid lactone andrographoloid) Increase glucose metabolism [33,34]
Plant extract Reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. [35]
Glibenclamide, glimepiride,
glipizide, nateglinide,
rosiglitazone, pioglitazone,
repaglinide
Inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and glucose transporter (GLUT4) [36,37,38]
Andrographis lineata Leaves extract Increase in glucose uptake, reduction in plasma glucose, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C triglyceride, glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose -1, 6- bisphosphatase, glycogen content (liver and muscle), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hexokinase increased [39]
Andrographis serphyllifolia Leaves extract Increase in glucose uptake, reduction in plasma glucose, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C triglyceride, glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose -1, 6- bisphosphatase levels, glycogen content (liver and muscle), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hexokinase  increased [39]
Asystasia gangetica Leaves extract α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibition [40]
Acanthus ilicifolius Root extract Decreased blood glucose levels and better regeneration of β-cells [32]
Barleria montana Leaves extract Reduction of blood glucose levels [41]
Graptophyllum pictum Purple leaves extract Reducing blood glucose levels [42]
Rhizophoraceae
Ceriops roxburghiana or
Ceriops decandra
Plant extract Insulin-stimulatory effect [43]
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Plant extract Decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL and LDL with increase in HDL,  having a protective function for the heart [44]
Annoaceace
Anemarrhena
asphodeloids
Rhizome extract Reduced blood glucose levels [45]
Annona squamosa Plant extract Fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, changes in body weight, liver glycogen and pancreatic TBARS [46]
Plant extract Reduced the levels of blood glucose, lipids and lipid peroxidation, increased the plasma insulin activities [47]
Leaves extract (acetogenins- squamosin B, squamosamide, reticulatain-2, isosquamosin) Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities, increased plasma insulin level [46]
Polyalthia longifolia Stem bark extract Antihyperglycemic activity [48]
Leaves extract α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes inhibitory activity [49]
Asteraceae
Artemisia  pallens Aerial part extract (germacranolide) Blood glucose lowering and moderate hypoglycaemic effect [50]
Artemisia amygdalina Plant extracts Reduced the glucose levels, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatise (ALP) and regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas [51]
Elephantopus scaber 28Nor-22(R)Witha 2,6,23-trienolid Reduced the blood glucose levels and restoring the insulin levels [2]
Root and leaves extract Regeneration of islet β-cells [52]
Smallanthus sonchifolius caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone Reduce the post-prandial glucose [53]
Achillea fragrantissima (Forsk.) Sch. Bip acacetin-6-C-(600-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside)-8-C-a-L-arabinopyranoside (5) alongside with four known compounds: chondrillasterol (1), quercetin-3,6,7-trimethyl ether (chrysosplenol-
D) (2), isovitexin-40-methyl ether (3) and isovitexin (4)
Delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and most significant a-glucosidase inhibitory activity [54]
Achillea santolina L. Flavonoids such as luteolin, quercetin, cosmosiin, hyperoside and cynaroside, terpenoids. Essential oil (1,8-cineole, fragranol, fragranyl acetate and terpin-4-ol) Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [55,56]
Ambrosia maritima L. terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins Blood glucose level reduced, change on post-prandial blood glucose [57]
Varthemia iphionoides Boiss and Blanche Eudesmane sesquiterpene,  flavonoids: jaceidine, kumatakenine, xanthomicrol, seven 3-methoxyflavones. essential oil Inhibitory activity of pancreas α-amylase,  decreased the blood glucose levels and hypoglycaemic activity [58]
Vernonia anthelmintica Seeds extract Reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1(C), cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, free fatty acids, phospholipids and HMG-CoA reductase, plasma insulin, protein, HDL and hepatic glycogen [59]
Silybum marianum Plant extract Creatinine concentration and glucose levels decreased, liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) reduced [60]
Caledula officinalis Plant extract Blood glucose and urine sugar lowered, body weight found to be highly significant, normal levels of blood glucose, urine sugar and serum lipid, increases the total haemoglobin level [61]
Stevia rebaudiana Leaves extract Rise of serum insulin levels and reduction in hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia and increase the m-RNAs expansion of PPARα and PPARγ,  recovery of β-cells [62]
Anacyclus pyrethrum Root extract (alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosteroids and also glycosides) α-amylase inhibitory effect [63]
Strelitziaceae
Ravenala
madagascariensis Sonn
Leaves extract Reducing the blood glucose levels [64]
Alliaceae
Allium sativum Garlic extract Hypoglycaemic  and hypolipidaemic activity [65]
Garlic extract Lowered serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, increased the urine output and water intake [66]
Rhizome extract Lowers blood pressure and improves lipid profile, decreases serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, increases serum insulin levels [67]
Plant extract Inhibition glycogen-metabolizing enzymes [68]
Meliaceae
Azadirachta indica A.Juss Azadirachtin and nimbin Improves peripheral glucose uptake by inhibiting action of epinephrine on glucose metabolism [69]
Leaves extract (nimbidin, nimbin, nimbidol, nimbosterol) Glycogenolytic effect due to epinephrine action was blocked [70]
Plant extract Increasing insulin secretion from β-cells of pancreas [68]
Trichilia emetica Extract of flavonoid-rich fractions Antihyperglycemia, antilipidemia and antihypertensive activities [71]
Palmaceae
Areca catechu L. Plant extract Reducing and normalizing the elevated fasting blood glucose levels [72]
Basellaceae
Basella rubra L. Leaves extract Fasting blood glucose levels reduced [73]
Leaves extract Decrease in blood sugar level and increased level of liver enzymatic Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) [74]
Bixaceae
Bixa orellana L. Plant extract (oleo-resin) Increase plasma insulin level and insulin binding on insulin receptor [75]
Melianthaceae
Bersama engleriana Gurke Leaf extract Decrease in BG (blood glucose), TG (triglycerides), TC  (total cholesterol) and increase in LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) level [76]
Leaves extract Reduced the blood glucose level [77]
Leguminosae
Bauhinia forficate Plant extract Reductions in plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol [78]
Decoction Reduction in serum and urinary glucose, urinary urea and inhibition of neoglycogenesis [79]
Acacia arabica Willd Seed (arabin) Initiate release of insulin [80]
Glycerrhiza glabra Linn. Root extract (triterpenoid, saponin, glycerrhizin) Lowers plasma glucose level [81]
Trigonella foenum graceum Seed extract Decrease blood glucose concentration [82]
Plant extract Increasing the glyoxalase 1 activity in liver and the creatine kinase levels in tissues [68]
Glycyrrhizae uralensis Tetra- and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose Potent aldose reductase inhibitory activities [83]
Cyamopsis tetragonolobus Plant extract Increasing glucose utilization, reduction in absorption of glucose from gastrointestinal tract [68]
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa bilimbi L. Leaf extract Lowered blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations, change in the total cholesterol and HDL–cholesterol, no difference in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cytochrome P450 values [84]
Leaf extract Increase serum insulin level [85,86]
Biophytum sensitivum Amentoflavone Insulotrophic effects i.e. improvement in synthesis and release of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans [87]
Amaranthaceae
Beta vulgaris Phenolics and betacyanins Pancreatic regeneration and antihyperlipidemic activity [88]
Plant extract Repairs damaged β-cells, increases insulin levels, enhance the sensitivity of insulin,  inhibit glucose, oxidase and glucose absorption and suppresses the activity of disaccharides in the intestine [89]
Achyranthus aspera L Plant extract Decrease blood sugar [90]
Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Plant extract Lowered the plasma and hepatic lipids, urea, creatinine levels and lipid peroxidation [91]
Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis Plant extract Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein [92]
Aerva lanata Linn Juss Aerial parts extract Reduce the blood glucose level, lipid profile, increase body weight and reduce serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin to normal level [93]
Compositae
Atractylode  japonica Rhizome extract (three glycans, atractans A, B and C) Significant hypoglycemic actions [94]
Artemisia amygdalina Plant extracts Reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP) reduced [51]
Bidens pilosa Aerial parts extract, Decreased blood glucose and increased serum insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance, decreased HbA1C levels and protected islet structure [95]
Lactuca indica Lactucain A, B and C Lowering of plasma glucose [96]
Eclipta alba Linn. Leaves extract (cliptin alkaloid) Decrease activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6, bisphasphatase [97]
Gynura procumbens Leaves extract Lowers plasma glucose level [98]
Xanthium strumarium Fruits extract, Phenolic compound ,caffeic acid Increase glucose utilization [99]
Tridax procumbens Plant extract Blood glucose reduction and hypoglycemic activities [100]
Sphaeranthus hirtus Willd Plant extract Fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels [101]
Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. Aerial parts (acacetin-6-C-(600-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside)-8-C-a-L-arabinopyranoside) a-glucosidase inhibitory activity [54]
Caryophyllaceae
Spergularia purpurea (Pers.) G.Don. Fil Plant extract Decrease in blood glucose levels, potent inhibitory effect on basal endogenous glucose production [102]
Paronychia argentea Plant extract a- amylase inhibitory activity [103]
Myrsinacea4
Maesa indica  Stem bark extract Reduction in blood glucose level,a- glucosidase inhibition activity [104]
Salicaceae
Casearia esculenta Root extract Reduction in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide and ceruloplasmin and elevation in plasma reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) [105]
Root extract (3-hydroxymethyl xylitol) Total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid and phospholipid (LDL-C and VLDL-C in plasma) levels,increased in plasma and tissues, the plasma HDL-C decreased [106]
Pandanaceae
Pandanus fascicularis Lamk Flavonoid extract Increased secretion of insulin [107]
Carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids & flavonoids Reduced blood glucose level [108]
Pandanus odorus 4-hydroxybenzoic acid Hypoglycemic effect and  increased serum insulin and liver glycogen content [109]
Root extract Decrease plasma glucose level [110]
Pandanus odoratissimus Root extract Reduce the increased blood glucose, reduce the increased blood urea, inhibit the body weight reduction [111]
Nyctaginaceae
Boerhavia diffusa Plant extract Reduction of glycosylated haemoglobin and increase in total haemoglobin level and glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase decreased [112]
Leaves and plant extract (alkaloid punarnavaine, punarnavoside) Increase in hexokinase activity,decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose bis-phosphatase activity, increase plasma insulin [113]
Bougainvillea glabra L. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins & cardiac glycosides Reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLCholesterol), increased the High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) [114]
Plant extract Reduction in fasting blood serum glucose [115]
Pisonia alba Span. Vitamin A, alkaloids, proteins & fats Decrease in blood glucose, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), cholesterol, triglycerides levels and increase in HDL levels [116]
Plant extract α-glucosidase inhibitory [117]
Crassulaceae
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz Leaves extract Close to normal blood glucose level [118]
Sapindaceae
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Plant extract Inhibitory effect on glucose diffusion, [119]
Leaf extract Increase in levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and  decreases insulin levels and haemoglobin (Hb) and reduction in glucokinase and elevation in gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, decreased plasma glucose and HbA1c and insulin and Hb levels [120]
Blighia sapida K. Kong Terpenoids, phenol, alkaloids, tannins Halt oxidative stress and dyslipidemia [121]
Pappea capensis L Leaf and stem bark extract Body weight induced and blood glucose levels reduced [122]
Cecropiaceae
Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. Leaves extract (flavone, isoorientin & 3-caffeoylquinic) Lowered the plasma glucose levels [123]
Leaves extract Reduction of glucose and HbA1c, no changes in cholesterol, triglycerides ALT, AST, ALKP or insulin [124]
Cecropia pachystachya Mart. Leaf extract Reduction in the blood glucose levels [125]
Musanga cecropioides R. Br. Ex Bennet Bark extract Lowered the fasting plasma glucose levels [126]
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium occidentale Linn Inner bark extract  Reduction in plasma glucose level [127]
Stem bark extract Increases in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, malonyldialdehyde, total protein, urea and creatinine [128]
Mangifera indica Linn. Leaf extract (mangiferin) Reduction of intestinal absorption of glucose [129]
Fruits and leaves extract Reduces the glucose absorption andstimulates glycogenesis in liver [130]
Pistacia atlantica Plant extract Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [102]
Plant extract α -amylase inhibitory activity [131]
Loganiaceae
Strychnos henningsii Gilg. Stem bark extract Decreased the blood glucose level, feed and water intake as well as triacylglycerol, lucose tolerance level effectively reduced [132]
Strychnos potatorum Linn. Root extract Reduced fasting blood sugar, increased body weight along with decreased food and water intake [133]
Seed extract Reduces blood sugar [134]
Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Plant extract  (phenols,  flavonoids,  terpenoids, tannins,  saponins  and  proteins) α-amylase inhibition [135]
Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev Root extract Reduction in fasting blood glucose level [136]
Anthocleista vogelii Stem bark extract Maximum reduction in FBG [137]
Scrophulariaceae
Bacopa monnieri L. Aerial parts Decrease in the blood glucose level, increased peripheral glucose utilisation in the diaphragm [138]
Becosine, triterpene Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) [139]
Scoparia dulcis L. Plant extract Inhibition of blood glucose level, increasing postprandial glucose in body [140]
Plant extract Elevated biochemical parameter and glucose level reduced gradually [141]
Plant extract Decreased free radical formation in tissues, decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HPX) and increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) clearly [142]
Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth Plant extract (picrorrhizin, kutkin) Decrease serum glucose [143]
Scoparia dulcis Linn. Leaves extract Decrease glycosylated Hb  and increased total Hb, insulin-secretagogue activity [144]
Rehmannia glutinosa Tuberous extract a-glucosidase activity [145]
Theaceae
Camellia sinensis Caffeine and catechins, Epigallocatechingallate Inhibits development of insulin resistance, hypoglymia and other metabolic effects and decreases glucose absorption from intestine [146, 147]
Leaves extract (polyphenols) Increase insulin secretion [148]
Equisetaceae
Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht and Cham Aerial parts extract Reduced the blood glucose levels, no significant changes in the insulin levels [149]
Equisetum arvense L. Plant extract Blood sugar decreased [150]
Capparaceae
Cleoma droserifolia (Forskal) Delil Terpenes, flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) and phenolic acids. Hypoglycaemic efficacy via potentiation of peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity,  decreasing hepatic glucose output and intestinal glucose absorption, insulin induction activity; restored the blood glucose level, plasma malondialdehyde and urine sugar to near the physiological values [151, 152]
Buchholzia coriacea Seeds extract Blood glucose reduction [153]
Capparidaceae
Capparis deciduas Stem extract Blood glucose level decreases and hypoglycemic activity [154]
Gynandropsis gynandra Plant extract (phytosterols, triterpenes, flavonoids, carbohydrates and alkaloids) Blood glucose level decrease [155]
Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. Plant extract Blood glucose level  and prevented body weight loss [156]
Polyphenols and flavonoids Blood glucose levels reduced [157]
Ebenaceae
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Bark extract (triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids & tannins) Reversed the diabetes-induced hyperlipidemia and studies of pancreas revealed its effects on β-cells count [158]
Leaves extract Reduce fasting serum glucose, elevation of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine levels [159]
Diospyros lotus L. Fruits extract Decrease in glucose level, recovered the body weight, parenchymal and portal inflammation and lymphocytes had been replaced by few eosinophils in the liver [160]
Euclea undulata Thunb. Var myrtina Root bark extract Lowered fasting blood glucose levels, elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels [161]
  Root bark extract (triterpene, α-amyrin-3O-β-(5-hydroxy) ferulic acid (1), betulin (2), lupeol (3) and epicatechin (4)) Lowers blood glucose levels, ability to inhibit α-glucosidase [162]
Capparis deciduas Edgew Powder Hypoglycemic, hypolipidaemic [163]
Sterculiaceae
Triplochiton scleroxylon Schumann Bark extract Decreased plasma glucose and malondialdehyde concentrations, tubular necrosis and mild fatty changes in the kidneys and liver [164]
Bark extract Activities of liver function enzymes viz. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) [165]
Plant extract Reduction in plasma glucose and malondialdehyde [166]
Helicteres isora L. Root juice Reduction in plasma glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels, reduction in plasma triglyceride, plasma lipid and insulin levels [167]
Fruits extract Produce a significant uptake of glucose [159]
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Leaves extract Reduce fasting serum glucose [158]
Bark extract (steroids, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenoids) Effects on  β-cells count, beneficial effects on blood glucose and hyperlipidemia [167]
Diospyros lotus L. Fruit extract Decrease in glucose level, recovered the body weight [168]
Abroma augusta Linn Roots and leaves, alkaloids Lowering blood sugar [169]
Euclea  undulata Thunb. Var myrtina Root bark extract Lowered fasting blood glucoseand elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels [161]
  Root bark (triterpene, α-amyrin-3O-β-(5-hydroxy) ferulic acid (1), in addition to three known compounds; betulin (2), lupeol (3) and epicatechin (4).) Lowers blood glucose levels, ability to inhibit α-glucosidase [162]
Fomitopsidaceae
Fomitopsis pinicola (Swartz. Fries) Karst. Fruit body extract Increased serum fructosamine levels and cells of the pericentral regions have swelling and some necrotic cells observed in the pancreas [170]
Lauraceae
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Leaves extract Reduced the blood glucose level [171]
Bark extract Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL) and tissue glycogen levels  and regulation and expression of glucose homeostatic enzymes, glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and Insulin II [172]
Bark extract, volatile oil, tannin, mannitol, ca. oxalate Elevation in plasma insulin [173]
Cinnamomum tamala Fr. Nees. Leaf extract Decrease in the levels of fasting blood glucose and urine sugar, increase in body weight, decrease in peroxidation products, viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione and glycogen content [174]
Leaves extract Lowered the blood glucose level and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters [172]
Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl Bark extract Reduces the blood glucose and elevates the plasma insulin level [175]
Persea americana Mill. Leaves extract Reduction in the blood glucose levels [176]
Leaves extract Reduced blood glucose levels and improved the metabolic state, the  Protein Kinase B activation was observed in the liver and skeletal muscle [177]
Burseraceae
Commiphora africana Stem bark extract Decrease in the blood glucose levels [178]
Hericiaceae
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. Fruiting bodies extract Effects on blood glucose, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels [179]
Fruiting bodies extract Decrease in serum glucose and a rise in serum insulin level and attenuated lipid disorders. Increased the activities of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and GSH (glutathione)  and reduced MDA (malondialdehyde) level in the liver tissue [180]
Vitaceae
Cissus sicyoides L. Leaves extract Decrease in plasma triglycerides and blood glucose  and triglyceride,  Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases levels [181]
Aerial parts Serum levels of glucose and increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels [182]
Musaceae
Musa paradisaca L. Stem juice Decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, SGOT and SGPT [183]
Flower extract Concentrations permanent hyperglycemia [184]
Musa sapientum Linn. Flower extract Reduce blood glucose &glycosylated Hb [185]
Costaceae
Costus afer Ker Gawl. Stem extract (flavonoids, saponins and phenols) Serum elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) expressed as melondialdehyde in the liver [186]
Costus igneus (L) Leaves extract (alkaloids. flavonoids, phenolic compounds and steroids) Prevented body weight loss [187]
Costus pictus Leaves extract Hypoglycaemic activity [188]
Thymelaeaceae
Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit pericarp extract Lowered blood glucose [189]
Verbenaceae
Clerodendrum capitatum Leaves extract (saponins, flavonoids,  alkaloids, tannins, glycosides) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects [190]
Clerodendrum serratum Leaves extract Reduction of blood glucose level and exhibited better glucose utilization [191]
Tectona grandis L. Root extract Reduces blood glucose level [192]
Premna corymbosa (Burm. F.) Rottl Leaves extract  Reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and improvement in HDL cholesterol [193]
Root extract Reduction of blood glucose [194]
Convolvulaceae
Merremia tridentata (L.) Hall. F. Root extract Increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol and antilipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas [195]
Ipomoea aquatica Forsk Leaves extract (carotene) Reduce fasting blood sugar& serum glucose level [196]
Ipomoea batata Linn. Seed extract (alkaloid, fatty oil, asparagines ) Lower serum glucose level [197]
Cuscuta reflexa Leaf extract α-glucosidase inhibitor [198]
Merremia emarginata Burm. F. Plant extract Decrease in blood glucose, serum urea and serum creatinine and increase in body weight, insulin and protein level,reduction of HbA1C and increase in total hemoglobin level. The hexokinase increased, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase decreased. Pancreatic β-cells regenerated [199]
Evolvulus alsinoides Plant extract Inhibitory effect on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase [200]
Verbebaceae
Lantana camera Leaves extract Reduction of blood glucose [201]
Fruit extract Antihyperglycemic activity and improvement in body weight, HbA1c profile, regeneration of liver cells [202]
Bignoniaceae
Dolichandrone falcatai Seem. Leaves extract Rreduction in blood glucose level [203]
Leaves extract Reductions of blood glucose, lipid parameters except HDL-C serum enzymes increased HDL-C, increase in plasma insulin [204]
Dolichandrone atrovirens Leaves bark extract Inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase and glucose-6-phosphatase [205]
Kigelia pinnata Jacq. Flower extract Reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level improved [206]
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Plant extract Reduction in blood glucose levels [207]
Tabebuia rosea
(Bertol) DC
Plant extract Reduction of blood glucose levels [208]
Tecoma stans Plant extract Intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibition by decreasing the postprandial hyper-glycaemia, reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels [208]
  Plant extract Stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without proadipogenic or antiadipogenic side effects [209]
Eucommiaceae
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Powdered leaf extract Blood glucose lower, the plasma insulin and C-peptide higher, lower plasma urea nitrogen levels [210]
Leaves extract (new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1à2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and known flavonols kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin) (2), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin) (3)) Exhibited glycation inhibitory activity of aminoguanidine, a known glycation inhibitor [211]
Quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dglucopyranoside
Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin)
Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin)
Glycation inhibitors [148]
Hippocrateaceae
Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson Leaves extract Reduction in blood glucose levels [212]
Salacia reticulata Wight Leaves extract Inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal a-glucosidase activities [213]
Root bark extract Improved glucose tolerance and reduced fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated hemoglobin levels [214]
Flacourtiaceae
Flacourtia jangomas Raeusch. Leaves and stem extract Eeduction in FBG level [215]
Fruit extract Fasting blood glucose level, body weight, liver and muscle glycogen and serum lipid profiles evaluated and reduces the fasting blood glucose level and increases the glycogen level and serum lipid profile improvement [216]
Flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins & phenols Altered biochemical parameters,  cholesterol and triglycerides [215]
Orchidaceae
Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. Stem extract Blood glucose levels and decrease in the blood glucose, serum urea and creatinine levels. LPP levels of kidney and pancreas decrease [217]
Nervilia aragoana Gaud Stem extract Blood glucose levels and decrease in the blood glucose, serum urea and creatinine levels. LPP levels of kidney and pancreas decrease [218]
Rutaceae
Clausena anisata Burm.f. Roots extract Stimulate secretion of insulin [218]
Murraya koeingii (L) Spreng Leaves extract Increase glycogenesis, decrease glycogenolysis  and gluconeogenesis [219]
Rubiaceae
Gardenia taitensis A. P. de Candolle Alkaloids, phytosterols, carbohydrates & saponins Reduction in blood sugar, significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and improvement in HDL cholesterol [220]
Xeromphis uliginosa Retz Root extract Reduced the blood glucose [221]
Morinda tinctoria Fruit extracts Inhibitory effect on glucose diffusion [222]
Nauclea latifolia Sm. Leaf extract Lowered the fasting blood glucose [223]
Leaves extract Increases in their MCV and MCH, reduction in  WBC and lymphocyte levels increased [224]
Leaves extract Lowered the blood glucose level [225]
Root extract Reduction in fasting Blood Glucose levels [226, 227]
Neolamarckia cadamba Stem bark extract Antihyperglycemic activity [228]
Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich Leaf extract Reduction in blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL [229]
Rubia cordifolia Linn Root extract Inhibited the a-amylase and a- glucosidase [230]
Nymphaeacea1
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Rhizome and flower extract Restores the normal levels of Hb, HbA, d RBC, WBC and platelets [231]
Rhizome extract (nuciferin, nornuciferin) Reduce blood sugar level [232]
Dried flower extract Depression of the peak rise in fasting blood sugar after glucose load [233]
Seeds inorganic compounds Insulin secretion or its actions in a synergetic manner [234]
Nymphaea stellata Willd. Flower extract Decreased the blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, VLDL and  increase in liver glycogen, insulin and HDL level. Increased the hexokinase, LDH activity and decreased the glucose 6-phosphatase activity [235]
Leaves extract Plasma glucose level increased and affected the plasma level of cholesterol and triglyceride [236]
Nymphaea pubescens Willd. Tuber extract reductions of blood glucose, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and increased HDL-C       [237]
Leaves extract Declines of blood glucose, lipid parameters except HDLcholestrol, serum enzymes and increased HDL-C [238]
Oleaceae
Olea europaea L. Leaf extract Decrease in blood glucose level [239]
Leaves extract, Oleuropeoside Potentiation of glucose, induced insulin released  and increase peripheral uptake of glucose [240]
Leaf extract Decreased the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), increased the serum insulin [241]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Root extract Hypoglycemic activity [242]
Flower and leaves extract Lowered blood serum glucose levels [243]
Abies pindrow Royle Plant extract Insulin secretagogue activity [244]
Juniperus communis Linn. Fruit extract Increase peripheral glucose consumption  and induce insulin secretion [245]
Boraginaceae
Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.F) Lamk Plant extract Decreased the blood glucose level and increased the body weight, food intake and liquid intake, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased,  reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase [246]
Heliotropium indicum Plant extract (alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, saponins and tannins) Antihyperglycemic activity [247]
Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Plant extract Lowered the plasma glucose levels [248]
Passifloraceae
Passiflora mollissima Bailey Leaves extract Lowered the blood sugar level [249]
Piperaceae
Piper betle L. Leaf extract Reduced the external glucose load, spleen had increased [250]
Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Plant extract Fasting blood sugar level was reduced [251]
Piper longum Root extract Decrease in FBG levels, decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers [252]
Piper nigrum L Seeds extract Reduces glucose and serum lipid levels [253]
Araceae
Anaphyllum wightii Schott. Rhizome extract α- amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity [254]
Tubers extract Decrease in fasting blood sugar level [255]
Polygalaceae
Melastoma malabathricum Leaves extract The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level and altered lipid profiles [256]
Polygala chinensis L Plant extract Reductions of blood glucose, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and increased HDLC and in serum insulin [257]
Polygala javana Leaves extract Reductions of blood glucose, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and increased HDLC and in serum insulin [258]
Combretaceae
 Combretum micranthum Leaf extract Hypoglycaemic activity [259]
Combretum lanceolatum Flower extract (quercetin) Reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels and increase in liver glycogen content, phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase  increased in liver, inhibition of gluconeogenesis, urinary urea reduced and skeletal muscle mass increased by activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase [260]
Terminalia belerica Roxb. Plant extract Decrease in glutathione, serum lipid peroxidation elevated, decreased serum glucose level [261]
Terminalia chebula Fruit extract The glycogen content of liver increased, reduction in blood glucose level on adrenaline induced hyperglycemia resulting from inhibition of α2 receptor of pancreatic β-cells, thus promoting further insulin release [262]
Fruit extract Decreases blood glucose levels by enhancing secretion of insulin from β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. Inhibits  glycosylation end products, which contribute to renal damage [263]
Terminalia pallida Brandis Fruit extract Antihyperglycemic activity [264]
Terminalia superba Leaves extract Normalization of fasting blood glucose levels, reduction in polyphagia and polydipsia and weight gain [265]
Terminalia catapa Fruit extract Improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profile regeneration of beta-cells of pancreas [266]
Plant extract Change in body weight and lipid profile along with serum creatinine, serum urea and serum alkaline phosphatase, regeneration of beta cells of pancreas [267]
Swertia chirata Leaves extract Reduction in blood glucose level [268]
Swerchirin Blood sugar lowering effect, lowers blood sugar level by stimulation of insulin release from islets of Langerhans [269]
Plant extract Fall in blood sugar, effective inregulating blood sugar levels [270]
Swertia chirayita Plant extract Effects on cholesterol and triglyceride level [271]
Plant extract Reduction of fasting blood glucose level, cholesterol level and triglyceride level [272]
Root extract (swertiamarin) Hypoglycemic activity [272]
Polypodiaceae
Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore. Plant extract Serum glucose levels, liver glycogen content and body weight [273]
Crussulaceae
Bryophyllum pinnatum Plant extract Drop in the BGL [117]
Moraceae
Ficus bengalensis Bark extract Decreased the blood glucose level, restored the levels of serum electrolytes, glycolytic enzymes and hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme systems and decreased the formation of liver and kidney lipid peroxides [274]
Bark extract, tannin Rising serum insulin [275]
Ficus religiosa Linn. Plant extract, tannin Initiating release of insulin [276]
Morus alba Leaves extract Increases the β -cell number in diabetic islets. Reduces levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Decreases triglycerides, cholesterol and VLDL, restores elevated levels of blood urea [277]
Plant extract Protection of pancreatic β-cells from degeneration and diminish lipid peroxidation [278]
Morus indica L. Leaves extract Increase glucose uptake [279]
Morus bomoysis Plant extract Regeneration of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans [68]
Violaceae
Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell Plant extract (flavonoids, flavonol, phenols) Increase in the body weight and decrease in the blood glucose level [280]
Plant extract Increased utilization of the glucose by hemidiaphragm [281]
Onagraceae
Jussiaea suffruticosa L. Plant extract Plasma glucose concentration fell [282]
Aizoaceae
Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Plant extract Decrease in the level of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), lipid peroxidation, liver glycogen, serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and liver marker enzymes such as AST, ALT, ALP, increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), Vitamin C [283]
Mollugo pentaphylla Aerial parts extract Reduces blood glucose level [284]
Aerial parts Recrease in the blood glucose level [285]
Plant extract Reduction in blood glucose [286]
Trianthema portulacastrum L. Plant extract Antihyperglycemic effect [287]
Zaleya decandra L. N. Burm. F. Root extract Restored the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, lipid peroxidation level, changes in necrosis and degeneration in liver and pancreas [288]
Balanitiaceae
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile Fruits extract Increased basal glucose uptake, accelerated the triglyceride accumulation in pre-adipocytes undergoing differentiation [289]
Asclepidaceae
Gymnema sylvestre R. Plant extracts The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and serum triglyceride content reduced and elevation in the level of serum HDL-cholesterol [290]
Plant extract Decreased plasma glucose, ALT, AST, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, malondialdehyde and increased insulin, HDL-cholesterol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase levels [291]
Plant extract Reduction of glucose concentration and urea, uric acid and creatinine levels increased [292]
Leaves and callus extract Increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content, increases the regeneration of β-cells [293]
Leaf extract (gymnemic acid, quercital) Lowers plasma glucose level [294]
Plant extract Regeneration of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans [68]
Caralluma attenuata Seeds extract Improve the alterations in blood glucose levels, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, liver glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin and body weight [295]
Cryptolepis sanguinolenta R. Plant extract (cryptolepine) Increase glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 cells [296]
Sarcostemma secamone Plant extract Increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and biochemical parameters level and altered lipid profiles [297]
Molluginaceae
Glinus oppositifolius Aerial parts Decrease in the blood glucose level [285]
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. Fil. Leaf extract (lophenol (phytosterols), 4-methylenecycloartanol) Maintains glucose homeostasis by interfering with carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. Increases production and release of insulin [289, 299]
Leaves gel Hypoglycemic activity, decreases fasting glucose levels, hepatic transaminases, plasma and liver cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids. Improves plasma insulin level. Restores normal levels of LDL and HDL and cholesterol reduces levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide and hypocholesterimic efficacy, diminishes degenerative changes in kidney tissues [300]
Pioglitazone, repaglinide Enhancement in adipose tissue insulin signaling pathway [301, 302]
Aloe barbadensis Miller Leaves extract (barbaloin, isobarbaloin, resin) Stimulating synthesis and/or release of insulin [303]
Liliaceae
Liriope spicata Tuberous root extract Decrease of fasting blood glucose and improvement of insulin resistance and serum lipid metabolism, liver histological analysis showed that TLSP, LSP1 and LSP2 ameliorated the hepatocyte hypertrophy and decreased the lipid accumulation, TLSP (total polysaccharides), LSP1 and LSP2 (new  polysaccharides) effectively inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glycolysis and hepatic glycogen content. Increased the expression of insulin-receptor α subunit, insulin-receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ [304]
Tuberous root extract Lowering total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, elevated the relative high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (HDL/TC) in serum [305]
Allium sativum Linn Root extract, allin, allicin Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive effect [306]
Allium cepa Linn. Bulb, Protein, carbohydrate, vit. A,B,C, allyl propyldisulphide Stimulating effects on glucose utilization and antioxidant enzyme [307]
Plant extract Increasing insulin secretion from beta cells of pancreas [68]
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Root extract Decreased the blood glucose level, fluid intake and considerably increased the body weight [308]
Root extract High density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase(SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), reduction of blood glucose, lipid profiles [309]
Root extract Suppressed postprandial hyperglycaemia after sucrose ingestion and increased unabsorbed sucrose content in gut and inhibited the absorption of glucose during in situ glucose. Enhanced glucose transport and insulin action in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, decreased serum glucose, increased pancreatic insulin, plasma insulin, liver glycogen and inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, enhancement of insulin secretion and action in the peripheral tissue [310]
Berberidaceae
Berberis lyceum Royle Root extract Glucose tolerance, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profiles and body weight [311]
Berberis aristata DC. Stem extract Reduced the blood glucose, significant reduction of serum, total cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL cholesterol level [312]
Root extract Antihyperglycemic activity [313]
Casearia esculenta Roxb. Plant extract Reduced the blood glucose [314]
Fagaceae
Quercus infectoria Root extract Reduced the blood glucose [315]
Cucurbitiaceae
Momordica charantia Linn. Charantin, sterol, momordicin Mimics insulin activity by stimulating muscle cells glucose and aminoacid uptakes, decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis [316, 317]
Fruit extract (momordicine alkaloid, ascorbic acid) Reduce blood glucose level [318]
A trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) Stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance [319]
Glibenclamide, glimepiride,
glipizide, nateglinide,
rosiglitazone
CYP, through CYP2C9 and glutathione S-transferase and insulin-like effects and stimulate insulin secretion [320]
Plant extract Acting like insulin [68]
Polypeptide-p Hypoglycemic effects in gerbils, langurs and huma [321]
Four cucurbitane glycosides, momordicosides Q, R, S, and T, and stereochemistry-established karaviloside XI In both L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane—an essential step for inducible glucose entry into cells, increased activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key pathway mediating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation, strong effect to stimulate GLUT4 translocation by several fold in both cell types to a level that was comparable to maximal insulin and AICAR stimulation, highly potent in stimulating GLUT4 translocation in insulin responsive cells [322]
Four cucurbitane glycosides, momordicosides Q, R, S, and T, and stereochemistry-established karaviloside XI Increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate isoform 1 and the phosphorylation of Akt only in the presence of insulin in insulin-resistant cells, they are insulin sensitizers,  enhanced the phosphorylation of AS160 (Akt substrate of 160 kDa), the migration of glucose transporter-4 and glucose uptake of insulin-resistant cells in the absence of insulin, they substitute for insulin to promote glucose clearance and insulin-sensitizing and insulin-substitution functions [323]
Momordica cymbalania Fenzl ex naud in Metformin and berberine Activate AMPK, as weak mitochondrial poisons and elevated intracellular AMP levels ensuring as a function of reduced mitochondrial respiration trigger increased AMPK activity, the upstream AMPK kinase, LKB1, is required for AMPK activation by metformin [324]
Seeds extract Potent inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase [325]
Coccinia indica β-amyrin, Lupeol, cucurbitacin B Glucose synthesis is inhibited by suppression of gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase. Activates glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by promoting glucose oxidation. Hypoglycemic effect by insulin secretagogue activity [326]
Coccinia grandis Plant extracts Reduce the blood glucose level [327]
Fruit extract Reduces blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin content. Lowers blood glucose by depressing its synthesis, depression of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose1,6, bisphosphatase and enhancing glucose oxidation pathway through activation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [328]
Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Seed extract Exhibited decrease in glucose and triacylglycerides [329]
Cucurbita moschata Stem extract ((22E,24R)-24-methyl-6β-methoxy-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5-diol and 3β-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-7-one) (ferulic acid, syringaresinol and (22E,24R)-24-methyl-6β-methoxy-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5-diol) Insulin-like activity in normal cells mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase. Exhibited an insulin sensitizing and/or insulin substitution function in insulin-resistant cells [330]
Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Seed extract Lactigogue activity [331]
Linaceae
Linum usitatisumum L. Seeds extract Reduces fasting blood sugar levels, total cholesterol, reduced the carbohydrate absorption from gut [332]
Chenopodiaceae
Anabasis articulata (Forssk) Moq. Saponins Decreased the glycaemia and greatest decrease of blood glucose [333]
Aerial parts Increase in blood glucose and cortisol levels,  blood hormone insulin concentration and α- fetoprotein, decrease blood tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood fructosamine,  hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin levels [334]
Beta vulgaris Linn Leaves extract Reduce blood glucose level by regeneration of β cells [335]
Spinacia oleracea L. Leaf extract Decreased SGOT, SGPT [336]
Leaves extract Reduction in fasting blood glucose levels [337]
Suaeda fruticosa Aerial part extract Decrease in blood glucose levels, levels of plasma insulin unchanged [338]
Cupressaceae
Juniperus phoenicea L. Leaves extract α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory atocttaivl iptihes [339]
Symplocaceae
Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore. Bark extract Decrease in blood glucose and increase in plasma insulin and liver glycogen, decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels and increase in HDL-C, restored the altered plasma enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP), total protein, urea and creatinine levels [340]
Bark extract a-glucosidase inhibition, insulin dependent glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, pancreatic beta cell regeneration in RIN-m5F and reduced triglyceride accumulation in 3T3L1 cells, protection from hyperglycemia induced the generation of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells with moderate antiglycation and PTP-1B inhibition [341]
Portulacaceae
Talinum portulacifolium Forssk. Leaves extract The blood glucose, lipid profile and alondialdehyde decreased, liver glycogen and reduced glutathione increased, pancreas regeneration [342]
Talinum paniculatum Three quinolizidine alkaloids:
Javaberine A, Javaberine A hexaacetate and Javaberine B hexaacetate
Inhibitors of TNF-α production by macrophages and fat cells [83]
Portulaca oleracea
L.
Seeds extract Improve the blood glucose levels, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, liver glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin and body weight [295]
Plant extract Reduces the fasting blood glucose and increases the glycogen level in the liver, elevated serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (SALP) decreased,  reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase levels, the HDL/LDL ratio improved and cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased. The pancreas showed regeneration [343]
Plant extract (polysaccharide) Reduction in blood glucose [344]
Plant extract (Polysaccharide) Decrease in the concentration of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and serum insulin level [345]
Tiliaceae
Triumfetta pilosa Roth Plant extract Lowered the blood glucose levels, prevented alterations in kidney pathology [346]
Acoraceae
Acorus calamus L. Rhizome extract Plasma insulin, tissue glycogen, glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels increased significantly and pancreas regeneration [347]
Labiatae
Ocimum sanctum Linn. Leaves extract Sustained oral hypoglycaemic activity [348]
Leaves extract Drop in the fasting blood sugar,  post prandial blood glucose level, drop in the glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) [349]
Leaves extract Increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and total thiols, reduction in peroxiodised lipid levels [350]
Leaves extract, V.oil, phenol, aldehyde, fixed oil, alkaloid, tannin, ascorbic acid Lowering blood sugar level [351]
Plant extract Reduction absorption of glucose from gastrointestinal tract [68]
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Leaves extract Lowers blood glucose level, modulates cellular antioxidant defense system. Improves β-cell function and enhances insulin secretion. Inhibits absorption of glucose from the intestine [350]
Ajuga iva L. (Schreber) 14,15-dihydroajugapitin, Ecdysones and phytoecdysteroids. Iridoids, such as 8-O-acetylharpagide The hyperglycaemia and preventing diabetic complications in liver, pancreas and kidneys. Acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic effects in normoglycemic [352, 353]
Plant extract Decrease plasma glucose level [354]
Leucas lavandulaefolia Plant extract Reduce blood glucose level [355]
Salvia miltiorrhiza Abietane-type diterpenoids:
Danshenols A and B
Dihydrotanshinone I, Tanshinone I
Cryptotanshinone, Tanshinone IIA, (-)-Danshexinkun A
Aldose reductase inhibitory activity [356]
Geraniaceae
Geranium graveolens L. Essential oils Dual inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [56]
Araliaceae
Panax quinguefolius Berry extract (ginsenosides) Improved the glucose tolerance and reduction in serum insulin levels, reduced plasma cholesterol levels, body weight changes [357]
Root extract The glycogen and high density lipoprotein (HDL) contents increased, levels of plasma cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration [358]
Panax ginseng Mey   Root and plant extract (glycans, panaxans) Lowering blood sugar level [359]
Woody root extract Decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) enzymes, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c) and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose andleptin hormone decreased and increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) [360]
Woody root extract (pioglitazone, repaglinide) Stimulate and increase in insulin action and secretion, decrease in β-cell mass [361, 362, 363]
Plant extract Acting like insulin and increasing insulin secretion from beta cells of pancreas [68]
Hedera helix L. Leaf extract Reduced the blood glucose level through extra-pancreatic actions by stimulated insulin release [364]
Leaves extract Reduced the blood glucose level [365]
Aralia elata Plant extract Inhibition of aldose reductase activity [68]
Ulmaceae
Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Steroids & glycosides Inhibiting ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells, cell membrane depolarization, which causes voltage-dependent calcium channels to open, which causes an increase in intracellular calcium in the beta cell, which stimulates insulin release [366]
Hypericaceae
Hypericum perforatum L. Leaves extract Reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased [367]
Glibenclamide, glimepiride,
glipizide, nateglinide, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, repaglinide
CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4; activator of the pregnane X receptor and improving beta-cell function and survival; inhibitors of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells [368, 369]
Chrysobalanaceae
Parinari excelsa Bark extract Decrease of blood glucose [370]
Juglandacea
Juglans regia L. Leaves extract FBS, HbA1c decreased and β-cells number increased [371]
Leaves extract Serum fasting HbA1C and blood glucose levels decreased and the insulin level increased [372]
Leaves extract Decrease in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL, triglyceride, and total cholesterol and increase in insulin and HDL level [373]
Phyllanthaceae
Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthin Decline in blood glucose  and significant recovery in body  weight, reduction in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-disphosphatase in liver, increase in the activity of glucokinase in liver [374]
Plant extract Reduction on the glucose level, no visible lesion seen in the liver, kidney and pancreas [375]
Plant extract (three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and lupeol) α-amylase inhibition activity [376]
Plant extract a-amylase inhibitory activity [377]
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit extract Increases the residual sucrose content throughout the gut after sucrose ingestion, inhibition of intestinal disaccharidase enzyme activity, reduced intestinal glucose absorption [378]
Rosaceae
Prunus amygdalus Seeds extra Hypoglycemic activity [379]
Potentilla fulgens L. Root extract Blood glucose reduced, glucose tolerance improved [380]
Sarcopoterium spinosum Plant extract Inhibited lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and induced glucose uptake in these cells in AML-12 hepatocytes and L6 myotubes. GSK3 beta phosphorylation induced in L6 myotubes, increased glycogen synthesis [381]
Plant extract Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [56]
Plant extract Reduced fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity and inhibited PTEN and activated PKB by a mechanism which is independent of ser473 and thr308 phosphorylation [382]
Alchemilla vulgaris L. Polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, gallic acid. Weight reduction in obese subjects, despite lack of antihyperglycemic activity [383]
Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach. [Syn Poterium spinosum] Triterpenoids, α-tocopherol, proanthocyanidines Hypoglycaemic effect viz. insulinotropic and insulin sensitizing. Starch blocker due to duality of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [56,384]
Parinari excela Sougue Seed extract Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lipid peroxidation, triglycerides, cholesterol and glutathione did not change significantly, glucose and total protein levels reduced and presence of fatty cells in the liver [385]
Rosa canina L. Fruit extract Hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic plus glucose-hyperglycemic [386]
Agrimony eupatoria L. Leaves extract Insulin releasing and insulin like activity [387]
Rubus fruticosus   Decrease in the blood glucose levels, reduction of serum lipids and liver enzymes [388]
Prunus persica Leaves extract Reduction in blood glucose [389]
Apocynaceae
Gymnema sylvestre Gymnemic acid Hypoglycemic activity of gymnemic acid is due to regeneration of islet cells, stimulation of insulin release, increase glucose uptake by cells, inhibition of glucose absorption and suppression of gluconeogenic enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase [390]
Catharanthus roseus G.Don Leaves, twigs and flower extracts, indole alkaloid, vincristine, vinblastin Increase metabolisation of glucose [391]
Leaves extract (vincristine, vinblastine) β-cell rejuvenation, regeneration and stimulation [392]
Cryptolepis sanguinolenta Cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid Decrease in glucose transport and absorption, reductions in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, increased sizes of β cells of the pancreas [393]
Nerium oleander L. Leaves extract Induce post prandial hyperglycemia by acting as a-glucosidase inhibitors [394]
Rauwolfia serpentine Leaves, root extract Decrease in glucose level [395]
Calotropis gigantea Seeds extract Decrease the blood glucose levels [396]
Poaceae
Zea mays L. Feruloylated oligosaccharide. Flavone C-glycosides and sesquiterpenes. Phenolics (proto-catechuic acid mainly). Hydroxycinnamic acids. Anthocyanins (liviert 3-glucoside and liviert-3-(6’’-Qmalonylglucoside) In vitro inhibition of glycation. Suppressed the progression of diabetic glomerular sclerosis. Decreasing blood glucose and protective action on the kidney and pancreas injury. Inhibition of hyperglycaemia-relevant α- glucosidase. Antidiabetic activity due to PPAR activation. Possible renoprotective role in diabetic nephropathy [397, 398, 399, 400, 401]
Cynondon dactylon Plant extract Decline in blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, elevated plasma cholesterol and urea level [402]
Polygonaceae
Rheum ribes Linn. Tannins and hydroxyanthracene derivatives (rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion-8-O-glucoside, aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, sennoside A, rhaponticin), minerals, phenolics (pyrocatechol) and flavonoids (quercetin equivalents). Insulin releasing effects and hypoglycemic activity, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [403, 404, 56]
Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arn. Aerial parts extract Fall in fasting blood glucose levels [405]
Leaves extract Reduced the fasting blood glucose level [406]
Aerial parts, leaves, flower, stem bark Inhibit the cholesterol synthesis pathway and increased HDL/LDL ratio due to activation of LDL receptors in hepatocyte, responsible for taken up LDL into the liver and reduced the LDL level of serum. Changes in  body weight, serum insulin, aspartate transminase, alanine transminase, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol and total serum proteins [407]
Rumex maritimus Aerial plants Decrease in blood glucose levels [408]
Rhamnaceae
Zizyphus spina- christi (L.) Desf. Saponin glycosides, flavonoids. essential oil, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid composition Insulinotropic hypoglycaemic effects in diabetic rats [409, 410]
Zizyphus sativa Gaertn Leaves extract, tannin Dose dependent reduction in blood glucose level [411]
Lythraceae
Punica granatum Leaves extract Increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle; it significantly reduced intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] [412]
Fruit rinds extract Maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits, biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG, VAD [413]
Husk extract Increase in the concentration of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and a decrease in the level of HDL cholesterol and hemoglobin content [414]
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Leaf powder or decoction Reduced blood and urinary glucose levels [415]
Corosolic acid (GlucosolTM) Glucose transport-stimulating activity [416]
Trapa natans L. Fruit peel extract Improved oral glucose tolerance, exhibited hypoglycaemic effect [417]
Fruit peel extract Reducing and normalizing the elevated fasting blood glucose levels [418]
Sonneratia alba Leaves extract Reduced significantly the sugar [419]
Lythrum salicaria Plant extract Reduction of lactic dehydrogenase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase [68]
Melastomataceae
Memecylon umbellatum Burm Leaf extract Lower serum glucose [420]
Leaves extract Inhibition of glucose [421]
Brassicaceae
Brassica juncea L. Seed extract Serum insulin levels were depletion [422]
Brassica nigra Seeds extract Fasting serum glucose reduced, increase in glycosylated hemoglobin and serum lipids [423]
Lepidium sativum L. Seed extract Decrease in blood glucose levels, no changes in basal plasma insulin concentrations [424]
Seed total alkaloid Suppressed blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and urea level, potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin from the remaining islet β-cells [425]
Mimosaceae
Mimosa pudica L. Leaves extract Blood glucose level reduced, body weight increased [426]
Leaves extract Reduction in the elevated serum glucose level, hepatic and renal enzymes reduced [427]
Albizia odoratissima Benth. Bark extract reduced the blood sugar and serum cholesterol level, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decrease level of total proteins [177]
Bark extract reduction in Blood Glucose Level [68]
Burseraceae
Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. Stem bark extract (alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids  and saponins) decrease in the blood glucose levels [177]
Sapotaceae
Mimusops elengi L. Leaf extract ecreases the serum glucose level [428]
Bark extract Blood glucose, serum insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin and liver glycogen, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [429]
Leaves extract Carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase and glycogen content in liver and kidney and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 2,6 bis-phosphatase levels increased [430]
Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. Bark extract HDL-c increased, GLB reduction, inhibited the a-amylase [431]
Mimusops elengi L. Flower extract Decreased serum glucose level [432]
Madhuca longifolia Bark extract Increased glucose uptake at the tissue level and/or an increase in pancreatic β-cell function, or due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption [433]
Ranunculaceae
Nigella sativa L. Essential oils, proteins, alkaloids & saponins Increased insulinemia and HDL-cholesterol, decreased OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) and tended to decrease liver and muscle triglyceride content, stimulated muscle and liver ACC phosphorylation and increased muscle Glut4 [434]
Acontium  carmichaeii Aconitine Improvement in peripheral glucose uptake is due to activation of opioid μ receptors of peripheral tissues, lowering plasma glucose levels [435]
Coptis japonica Roor extract, Five isoquinoline alkaloids, Berberine chloride
Berberine sulfate, Berberine iodide
Palmatine sulfate, Palmatine chloride
Aldose reductase inhibitor [436]
Paeonia lactiflora Tetra- and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose Potent aldose reductase inhibitory activities [81]
Moringaceae
Moringa oleifera Lam. Root extract Increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6 and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin increased. Albumin decreased and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. The renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 increased. Urine analysis showed glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed pathological alterations [437]
Pods extract Reduction in serum glucose and nitric oxide, with increases in serum insulin and protein levels, degenerative changes in β-cells [438]
Myricaceae
Myrcia uniflora Barb. Rodr. Leaf extract Reduced the hyperglycemia, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine volume and the urinary excretion of glucose and urea, no effect on the weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue, or on the concentrations of pancreatic and serum insulin [439]
Myrcia bella Leaves extract Reduced the fasting blood glucose, water and food intake and increased hepatic glycogen. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced, increased the expression of IRS-1, PI3-K and AKT in the livers [440]
Euphorbiaceae
Ricinus communis Leaves extract The decreased cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride and insulin, increased SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and glucose [441]
Root extract Difference in alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [442]
Embellica officinalis Gaertn Fruits extracts,  Vit.C, tannin Reduce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, creatinine albumin level [443]
Phyllanthus amarus Plant extract  (alkaloids) Decrease blood glucose level [444]
Beyeria leshnaultii Plant extract Reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes [35]
Euphorbia  drumondii Plant extract Reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes [35]
Euphorbia hirta Plant extract (phenols,  flavonoids,  terpenoids, tannins,  saponins  and  proteins) α-amylase inhibition [445]
Mallotus repandus Stem extract a-amylase inhibitory activity and reduced FBG level [446]
Celastraceae
Salacia oblonga Wall Root bark Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides. The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSHPxase and GSSGRase increased [447]
Root extract Inhibition of a-glucosidase activity [447]
Plant extract Serum insulin was increased, plasma HbA1c  decreased. The serum Triacyl Glycerol (TG) levels decreased and increase in HDL-cholesterol [448]
Salacia reticulata Wight Stem and root extract Inhibition of a-glucosidase activity [449, 450]
Salacia chinensis 3 ,22 -Dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, Tingenone, Tingenine B, Regeol A, Triptocalline A, Mangiferin Aldose reductase inhibitory activity [451]
Gentianaceae
Swertia punicea Methyl swertianin and bellidifolin Improved the oral glucose tolerance and lowered fasting serum insulin (FINS), lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels and increased relative high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations (HDL/TC), improve insulin resistance by enhancing insulin signaling, expression levels of insulin-receptor alpha subunit (InsR-alpha), insulin-receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K),  increased hepatic glycogen content, decreased glucokinase (GK) and increased glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activities [452]
Swertia bimaculata Plant extracts with corymbiferin Fasting blood glucose levels decreased, serum insulin levels increased. The oral glucose tolerance was improved. The lowed serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride levels and increased ratio of HDL (high density lipoprotein)/LDL observed. The insulin sensitivity improved on the basis of increased expressions of insulin-receptor substrate-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ser/Thr kinase AKT2 [453]
Swertia kouitchensis Plant extract Inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and stimulate insulin secretion [454]
Enicostemma littorale Blume Plant extract, Swertiamarine glycoside Decrease glycosylated Hb and glucose 6 phosphatase [455, 456, 457]
Gentiana oliveri Griseb. Flower extract,  Iso-orientin C-glycoside Lowers plasma glucose level [458]
Anthocleista vogelii Plant extract (stem bark) Maximum reduction  in Fasting Blood Glucose [459]
Caesalpinaceae
Caesalpinia digyna Root extract Decrease the post prandial increase of blood glucose, α-glucosidase, α-amylase inhibition [460]
Cassia auriculata Flower extract Increase utilization of glucose through increase glycolysis [461]
Flower extract (mixed catechins, caffeine and
quercetin)
Inhibition of  a-amylase and a-glucosidase activities, SOD, CAT and GPx activities increased [462]
Bark extract Elevation in the levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), serum insulin, C-peptide and liver enzyme [463]
Cassia fistula Leaves extract Hypoglycemic activity decreases blood glucose level [464]
Cassia occidentalis Plant extract Differences observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein, and changes in body weight [465]
Menispermaceae
Tinospora cardifolia Willd. Tinosporone, tinosporic acid, Columbin, Tinosporaside, Cordifolioside A Decreased blood glucose by level and increased glucose tolerance is correlated with regeneration of beta cells of islets of langerhans [466]
Root extract, Berberine, starch Decrease blood glucose and brain lipid [467]
Stem extract Decreases blood glucose level through glucose metabolism, inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia [468]
Plant extract Regeneration of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans [68]
Tinospora crispa Linn. Stem extract Anti-hyperglycemic, stimulates insulin release from islets [469]
Coscinium fenestratum Calebr Stem extract,  barberine, glycoside, saponin Increase enzymatic antioxidants [470]
Myrtaceae
Eugenia jambolana Lam. Seed, fruit, leaves, kernel Lowers plasma glucose level [471, 472]
Plant extract Increasing insulin secretion from β-cells of pancreas [68]
Eucalyptus globulus Labill Leaves extract, Essential oil, cineol Increase insulin secretion from clonal pancreatic beta line (BRIN-BD 11) [387]
Myrtus communis L. Leaves extract, V.oil mirtii oleum Lower blood glucose level [473]
Syzygium cumini Linn Seed extract Decrease blood glucose level [474]
Syzygium malaccense Casuarine 6-O-α-glucoside α-Glucosidase inhibitor [83]
Psidium guajava Plant extract Decreased blood glucose levels [475]
Leaves extract Inhibited the a-glucosidase and a-amylase enzymes [476]
Myrcia multiflora Myrciacitrin I, II, III, IV and V Aldose reductase inhibitory activity [477]
Malvaceae
Grewia asiatica L cyanidin 3- glucoside Hypoglycemic effect is mainly result of improving glucose utilization by cells [478]
Plant extract Increasing glucose utilization [80]
Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Plant extract Stimulate insulin secretion from β-cells [479]
Anoda cristata Plant extract, acacetin  and diosmeti α-glycosidases inhibitors, insulin secretagogues, glucose entrapment [480]
Althaea rosea (Linn.) Cavan Flower extract (three new dihydroflavonol glycosides, named as roseaflavanonolosides A (1), B (2) and C (3)) Decrease serum triglyceride and glucose levels, gene expressions on AMPK, IRS2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in liver up-regulated. Hepatic cell glucose uptake using 2-NBDG as a glucose uptake indicator, the glucose uptake increasing level [481]
Abelmoschus esculentus Plant extract Abnormal expression of genes (carboxylesterase 2, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1, insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 binding protein) [482]
Campanulaceae
Lobelia chinensis Two new pyrrolidine alkaloids : radicamines A and B α-glucosidase inhibitor [483]
Lamiaceae
Marrubium vulgare Marrubiin Promotes insulin release from β-cells of islets of langerhans or and inhibit processs of insulin breakdown [484]
Origanum majorana 6-Hydroxyapigenin,
6-Hydroxyapigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 6-Hydroxyluteolin-
7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
6-Hydroxyapigenin-7-
O-(6-O-feruloyl)-β -D-glucopyranoside, 6-Hydroxyluteolin-7-O-(6-O-feruloyl)-β-Dglucopyranoside
α-glucosidase inhibitor [485]
Hyssopus officinalis (7S,8S)-Syringoylglycerol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside
(7S,8S)-Syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6’- O-cinnamoyl)-β-Dglucopyranoside
α-glucosidase inhibitor [83]
Otostegia persica Root extract Decreased serum glucose and HDL levels [486]
Root extract Decreased serum glucose [487]
Fabaceae
Trigonella foenum Seed extract Tremendous increase in the glucose content of blood, liver and pancreas, increase in hyperglycemia [488]
Seed extract Decreased blood glucose, serum cholesterol, SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase) levels [489]
Trigonella foenum graecum Trigonelline
(1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate)
4-hydroxyisoleucine
(2-amino-4-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acid), sotolon, vicine, withaferin-A
Diminishes the carbohydrate metabolism by inhibiting intestinal enzyme a-amylase. It stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells to induce hypoglycemia. [490]
Seed extract Decreases s post prandial blood glucose level [491]
Pterocarpus marsupium Plant extract Protective effect by correcting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum protein, insulin, alkaline and acid phosphatase (ALP and ACP) and albumin levels, protein and glycogen altered towards normal [492]
Woof-bark extract Blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C)] serum protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, serum enzymes [erum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], antioxidant enzymes lipoprotein peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), erythrocytes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) [493]
(–)-Epicatechin (flavonoid) Anti-hyperglycemia and insulinogenic activity [494]
Marsupsin and pterostilbene
(phenolic constituents)
Anti-hyperglycemic activity [495]
Plant extract Increasing insulin secretion from β-cells of pancreas [82]
Lupinus albus Linn. Seed extract,  alkaloid, fatty oil, asparagines Lower serum glucose level [496]
Lupinus perennis Three quinolizidine alkaloids:
Lupanine, 13-α-Hydroxylupanine,
17-Oxo-lupanine
Glucose-induced insulin release enhancement from isolated rat islet cells was dependent on the glucose concentration [497]
Securigera securidaca Seeds extract Exhibited hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, reduced the levels of serum glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol and increased the level of HDL-cholesterol [498]
Acacia tetragonophylla Plant extract Reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. [35]
Pterocarpus  marsupium Plant extract Reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. [35]
Acacia catechu Plant extract Reduction of blood glucose level [499]
Bauhinia forficata Plant extract Reductions in plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, levels of LDL not altered [77]
Decoction Reduction in serum and urinary glucose and urinary urea [79]
Clitoria ternatea Leaves and flower extract Enzymatic glycation, glucose uptake by yeast cells and a-amylase inhibition [500]
Cajanus cajan Root extract Decrease in fasting serum glucose and blood glucose level [82]
Tamarindus indica Seeds extract Decrease in fasting serum glucose and blood glucose level [501]
Medicago sativa Plant extract Increasing insulin secretion from β-cells of pancreas [82]
Cyamposis tertragonoloba Plant extract Reduction absorption of glucose from gastrointestinal tract [82]
Papilionaceae
Phaseolus vulgaris Pod, seed and plant extract Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, inhibit a-amylase activity [502]
Bombacaceae
Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertner Root bark extract Reduced the intake of both food and water,  levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea, improves impaired glucose tolerance, no effect in the level of hepatic glycogen. lowering blood glucose, reducing serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations [503]
Bark extract Decreased blood glucose level, total cholesterol and triglycerides level, prevented degeneration of liver and pancreas, and increased serum insulin level and liver glycogen content [504]
Root bark extract Lowering blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations [505]
Adansonia digitata L. Stem bark extract (tannins, carbohydrates, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids & alkaloids) Reduction in the blood glucose levels [506]
Fruit pulp extract (glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids) Reduction of serum glucose [507]
Hypodoxiaceae
Curculigo  orchioides Plant extract Enhanced glucose uptake and reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes [35]
Root tubers Hypoglycemic activity [508]
Solanaceae
Withania somnifera Dunal Root and leaves extract (flavonoids) Levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c) and tissues of liver, kidney and heart lipids increased, Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio, tissues protein and glycogen decreased [509]
Root and leaves extract Levels of blood glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c)  increased, but total protein albumin, albumin: globulin (A : G) ratio, [510]
Root extract,  withanine, somnine, withaferine, withanolides Decrease blood sugar level, increase in urine sodium, urine volume, decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) cholesterol [510]
Solanum nigrum L. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics & micronutrients Restore the function of pancreatic tissues by causing an increase in insulin output or inhibit the intestinal absorption of glucose or facilitation of metabolites in insulin-dependent process, effect on protecting β-cells and smoothing out fluctuation in glucose levels [511]
Leaves extract Changes in body weight, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and levels of glucose [512]
Capsicum frutescens Linn. Plant extract, capsaicin, pritein Increase insulin secretion and reduction of insulin binding on the insulin receptor [513]
Lycium shawii Roem and Schult Aerial part extract All morphological, biochemical, haematological and spermatogenic changes, in mortality, body weight changes and any change in vital organs [514]
Capsicum  annum Capsaicin Insulin producing cells are protected from autoreactive T cells, binding of capsaicin to the VR1 receptors activates pancreatic macrophages [515]
Solanum trilobatum L. Leaf extract Changes in body weight, serum lipid profiles and liver glycogen levels [516]
Datura stramonium Leaves extract α-amylase enzyme inhibitory activity [517]
Sonneratia alba Sm. Leaf extract Reduced blood sugar level [518]
Sonneratia caseolaris Plant extract Reducing glucose blood [519]
Lycium barbarum Glibenclamide, glimepiride,
glipizide, nateglinide,
rosiglitazone
Improve glucose transport, CYP2C9 inhibitor and  GLUT4 trafficking and intracellular insulin signaling [520, 521]
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L. Seed extract Decreased blood glucose and cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels, prevented hepatocyte disruption, accumulation of glycogen and lipids [522]
Seed extracts Decreased blood glucose levels, Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) levels and lipid profiles decreased [523]
Apiaceae
Carum carvi L. Seeds extract Decreased serum glucose [524]
Eryngium carlinae Plant extract Reduced the levels of creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol and triglycerides [525]
Centella asiatica Centellasaponin A Aldose reductase inhibitory activity [83]
Plant extract Inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels [526]
Elaegnaceae
Hippophae rhamnoides L. Seed extract Lowered the serum glucose, triglyceride and nitric oxide, increased serum superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels [527]
Seeds extract Increase of blood glucose, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level,  reduction in GSH (tissue glutathione) content [528]
Irvingiaceae
Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill. Seed extract Fall in glucose level, lowered serum TG level [529]
Seed extract Decreased the elevated serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels atherogenic index increasing HDL-cholesterol [530]
Umbelliferae
Ferula persica Wild. Plant extract a-amylase inhibitory activity [103]
Carum carvi Linn. Fruits extract, oil, resin, carvone, fixed oil Decrease in blood glucose level, alleviated their body weight loss, decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, no change in triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [531]
Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L. Polyphenolics, Flavonoids, Essential oil, Lignan glucosides, Carotenoids. a-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, reduction of intestinal glucose absorption and enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhans Isletes, protective activities of β-cells of Langerhans,  Proliferation of the β-cells, enhanced glucose uptake in L6-GLUT4myc myoblast cells, enhancing glucose utilization and plausible activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in glucose homeostasis. Protective effect on hepatocytes, neuro-protective effect [532-537]
Laportea ovalifolia Scham and Thonn. Aerial part extract Lowering of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, TC/HDL-C and increase in HDL cholesterol [538]
Urtica parviflora Leaves extract Effect on intestinal glucose absorption [539]
Urtifca dioica Linn Leaves extract Increase insulin secretion [540]
Leaves extract Increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, decrease in lepin and no change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT and ALP, decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI, increased serum TG, VLDL and AST [541]
Salvadoraceae
Salvadora oleoides Decne Aerial part extract Reduction in blood glucose and  beneficial effects on the lipid profile [542]
Salvadora persica Plant extract Decreased the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL, VLDL and elevation of HDL, accelerated the regeneration of β-cells [543]
Plant extract Reduction  in blood glucose and  effect  on lipid profile [544]
Salvadora lavandulifolia   Blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL, VLDL and elevation of HDL, regeneration of β-cells of pancreas [543]
Zingiberaceae
Zingiber officinale Sesquiterpene
(β-Sesquiphellandrene)
Improving insulin sensitivity and reduces fasting blood glucose and improves serum insulin level [545]
Rhizome extract, Sesquiterpene Increase insulin level and decrease fasting glucose level [546]
Rhizome extract Lowers plasma glucose level [547]
Plant extract Increasing glucose utilization [278]
Aframomum melegueta (Rosc) K. Leaf extract Increase in alkaline phosphatase with no signs of steatosis or cirrhosis and decrease in blood glucose [548]
Alpinia galanga Leaves extract Serum glucose,  serum triglyceride level decreased,  inhibition of α-glucosidase [549]
Costuspictus Leaves and callus extract α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity [550]
Curcuma aromatica Rhizome extract Serum glucose glyceride level decreased, total protein increased [551]
Alpinia calcarata Rhizome extract Inhibition of a-glucosidase activity and enhanced the glucose uptake in  hemidiaphragm [552]
Chenopodiaceae
Suaeda fruticosa Aerial parts Decrease in blood glucose levels, plasma cholesterol [553]
Anabasis articulata (Forssk) Moq. Leaves extract Decrease of blood glucose [554]
Leaves extract Increases the blood hormone insulin concentration and α- fetoprotein, decrease blood tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and blood fructosamine [333]
Spinacia oleracea L. Plant extract Decreased SGOT and SGPT [335]
Plant extract Reduction in fasting blood glucose levels [337]
Bombacaceae
Adansonia digitata L. Aerial parts (glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids) Reduction of serum glucose [505]
Stem bark extract Reduction in the blood glucose levels [505]
Zygophyllaceae
Peganum harmala Linn. Flavonoid glycosides and major ß-carboline alkaloids (harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol and tetrahydroharmine). Antidiabetic activity in C57BL/KsJ-db/db [555]
Tribulus terrestris Linn. Saponin and harmine Decrease serum glucose [556]
Zygophyllum gaetulum Aerial part extract Reduction in blood glucose concentration [557]
Zygophyllum geslini Aerial part extract Decrease in blood sugar [558]
Alangiaceae
Alangium lamarckii Thw. Leaves extract Decreased the blood plasma glucose level, restored the lipid profile and improvement in liver glycogen, body weight [559]
Punicaceae
Punica granatum Linn Seed extract, Vit.C, protein, tannin, gallic acid, pelletierine Reduce blood sugar level [560]
Loranthaceae
Viscum album Linn. Plant extract a-glucosidase inhibitor [561]
Loranthus micranthus Leaves extract Inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, sucrase and glucose [562]
Agavaceae
Sansevieria roxburghiana Leaves extract Normalized blood glucose levels, serum
biochemical parameters; decreased lipid peroxidation and recovered GSH and CAT
[563]
Sansevieria trifasciata Leaves and rhizomes extract Decrease of fasting blood glucose level [564]
Achariaceae
Hydnocarpus wightiana Seed extract Blood glucose levels decreased [40]
Combretaceae
Terminalia bellerica Bark extract Inhibition of a-amylase and a-glucosidase activity [565]
Actinidaceae
Actinidia kolomikta Root extract α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in the small intestine [566]
Dilleniacea
Tetracera indica Leaves extract Reduce triglyceride accumulation on 3T3-L1 cells, 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake activity increased [567]

Table 6: Details of plants and phytochemicals having antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action.

Conclusion

The data presented based on findings from different reports clearly tells that the use and role of plant extracts or phytoechemicals in diabetes management by possessing different mechanisms. Only few plants have shown the clear mechanism in in-vivo conditions and other plants have shown only strong in in-vitro conditions. Hence, more work has to be carried out to find solutions for management of diabetes by using plant extracts. This review gives the a brief information on plants role in diabetes management.

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Citation: Govindappa M (2015) A Review on Role of Plant(s) Extracts and its Phytochemicals for the Management of Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 6:565.

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