The current study explains how an interdisciplinary approach was used to identify 700-year-old skeletal remains and solve the individual's unusual burial pattern. Archaeologists uncovered a unique cemetery near the main square of Northern Bohemia, during a rescue excavation in March 2010. It was dated to the first half of the 14th century and was discovered during a rescue excavation in March 2010. The male skeleton was discovered in a small (20 cm deep) trench beneath a layer of 14th century ceramics placed in an outcast-like way. The grave-pit was parallel to the graveyard wall and located outside the cemetery area (about 0.5 m from the original graveyard wall).The torso was stretched ventral decubitus, with the left arm parallel to the body and the right arm slightly abducted at the shoulder joint, bent at the elbow, with the hand clinched in a fist. The head was rotated slightly to the left and facing west. The skeleton was mainly intact, although some hand and foot bones were missing, and the ribs and vertebrae were badly preserved.
The very short depth of the grave and heavy construction machinery traversing over top of the cemetery certainly caused severe fragmentation of some bones and the skull. Four silver coins (Grossi Pragenses from the time of John the Blind [1310–1346, the Luxembourg Dynasty]) were discovered near the left arm.The departed could not participate in the Last Judgment and resurrection if they were buried in a non-ritual position. Furthermore, non-ritual burial could be evidence of anti-vampiric remedies, which were used to prevent potential vampires (frequently including the condemned) from returning to the living world and committing harm. The face-down position can also represent penance, as King Pepin the Short did when he died in 768 and was buried in the Abbey of Saint Denis, north of Paris.
The departed could not participate in the Last Judgment and resurrection if they were buried in a non-ritual position. Furthermore, non-ritual burial could be evidence of anti-vampiric remedies, which were used to prevent potential vampires (frequently including the condemned) from returning to the living world and committing harm. The face-down position can also represent penance, as King Pepin the Short did when he died in 768 and was buried in the Abbey of Saint Denis, north of Paris.
By sequencing 229 bps of mitochondrial DNA from a 140-year-old museum specimen of quagga skin, the first DNA analysis of aged material was done; presented his successful attempt to recover and analyse the nuclear Alu repetitive sequence family DNA from a 2,400-year-old Egyptian mummy of a kid in 1985, resulting in the first ancient DNA (aDNA) investigation of human remains. The discovery of PCR boosted aDNA research, but most studies focused on mitochondrial genome sequences rather than the more challenging nuclear DNA. In the recent decade, advances in molecular biology have helped to overcome some of the restrictions that previously limited DNA analysis to mitochondrial DNA, which is abundant in mammalian cells. Archaeologists may now analyse nuclear DNA, including Y-chromosome STR typing, thanks to advancements in forensic genetics (e.g., inhibitor-free DNA extraction, multiplex PCR, short STR amplicons, and qPCR).
To improve the quality of information acquired from ancient artefacts, currently existing techniques for DNA analysis employing "forensic" processes can be integrated with conventional anthropological examination, sophisticated imaging and CT scanning techniques, and isotope analysis. A multidisciplinary approach to investigating ancient human remains can aid in the verification of DNA analysis results and the more precise interpretation of the findings. All existing approaches for bone sample DNA analysis deplete a portion of the artefact and must thus be regarded as destructive. Prior to undertaking a DNA study, it is understandable to perform near-perfect recording (i.e., a CT scan) of the bone to preserve information that may be important for the anthropological research. The process of anthropological facial reconstruction/approximation is used to reconstruct lost or unknown aspects of a person's face over the skull. Facial reconstruction is based on a specific relationship between a face's morphology and the skull beneath it. To establish the size and shape of the facial features, facial reconstruction uses average values of soft tissue depths measured at defined places on the face, as well as other prediction standards (e.g., eyes, nose and mouth).
Citation: Thirunahari A (2021) Study and Analysis of Anthropology. J Biol Syst Open Access. 10:205.
Received: 06-Sep-2021 Published: 27-Sep-2021, DOI: 10.35248/2329-65184.108.40.206
Copyright: © 2021 Thirunahari A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.