Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

ISSN - 2155-6156



Angiotensin II-Superoxide Signaling and Arterial Baroreceptor Function in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus

Yu-Long Li

Diabetes is a major world health problem. Growing evidence from both clinical trials and animal experiments has clearly confirmed that arterial baroreflex dysfunction is a feature of type 1 diabetes, which links to prognosis and mortality of the type 1 diabetic patients. The arterial baroreflex normally regulates the blood pressure and heart rate through sensing changes of arterial vascular tension by the arterial baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus. The aortic baroreceptor neuron located in the nodose ganglia is a primary afferent component of the arterial baroreflex. The functional changes of these neurons are involved in the arterial baroreflex dysfunction in the type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes causes the overexpression and hyperactivation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and further reduces cell excitability of the aortic baroreceptor neurons. The alterations of the HCN channels are regulated by angiotensin II-NADPH oxidase-superoxide signaling in the aortic baroreceptor neurons. From the present review, we can understand the possible mechanisms responsible for the attenuated arterial baroreflex in the type 1 diabetes. These findings are beneficial for improving quality of life and prognosis in patients with the type 1 diabetes mellitus.