Salman M Al-Kasimi
This article proposes a main source for cloud charge. It suggests that deserts are emitting charged water-vapor that ascends to the sky un-noticed. This charged water-vapor is produced as output of a vapor-geo-engine that works 24-hour daily. This geo-engine is powered by the earth’s internal heat, which evaporates deep sea water penetrating continental voids at depths below three kilometers of sea surface. The sea water at these depths is rich with heavy isotopes of all elements constituting it, particularly hydrogen and oxygen. Some of these isotopes are stable under deep sea hydraulic pressure in excess of three hundred bars, but are un-stable at water table surface inside deep continental voids, that relieves the pressure to almost one bar. The un-stable isotopes disintegrate; and one of the disintegration products is the β-emission. This makes the water-vapor of the geo-engine charged electrically. The vapor ascends through soil voids; and at desert topologies, it reaches earth surface in gaseous state; ascending up to sky. The paper suggests some apparatus to test the validity of this proposal.