Varshal J Barot and Sarath Chandran
Background: Elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is regarded as a risk predictor for cardiovascular diseases. A positive association between circulating CRP levels and periodontal disease may be responsible. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum CRP, WBC and OHI-S level in patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.
Methods: Total 57 subjects, divided into 3 groups based on the diagnosis into: Group A- aggressive periodontitis (n=17), Group B- chronic periodontitis (n=20) and Group C- non-periodontitis (n=20). After clinical data were recorded, venous blood was taken at baseline and 1 month after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal examination included probing depth at baseline and OHI-S level was recorded at baseline and after 1 month. Blood was analysed to determine serum CRP and white blood cells (WBC) count.
Results: Mean WBC level: In group A, at baseline is 1.03E4 ± 1850.85 whereas it is 7976.47 ± 1538.47 after one month and in group B, at baseline is 9464.00 ± 1904.62 whereas it is 8510.00 ± 1778.79 after one month.
Mean OHI-S level: In group A, at baseline was 2.8847 ± 0.83 whereas it was 0.7029 ± 0.30 after one month and in group B, at baseline was 3.1480 ± 0.87 whereas it was 0.6465 ± 0.40 after one month. Treatment resulted in reduction of WBC count and oral hygiene index- simplified (OHI-S) score levels (p<0.05).
Mean CRP level: In group A, at baseline was 5.091 ± 10.02 whereas it was 3.0153 ± 3.37 after one month and in group B, at baseline was 2.658 ± 1.82 whereas it was 3.0030 ± 2.24 after one month. In group C at baseline was 1.917 ± 0.79. However, there were statistically no significant changes in levels of serum CRP in aggressive and chronic periodontitis (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Both forms of periodontitis are associated with increased systemic inflammatory response with aggressiveness of disease progression, but improvement in periodontal health did not influence the levels of serum CRP.