Biological Systems: Open Access

ISSN - 2329-6577


Ray Greek

Ray Greek
Americans for Medical Advancement (AFMA),
2251 Refugio Rd. Goleta, California

  • Research Article
    The Strengths and Limits of Animal Models as Illustrated by the Discovery and Development of Antibacterials
    Author(s): Ray Greek and Lawrence A HansenRay Greek and Lawrence A Hansen

    While the use of sentient animals in biomedical research is known to be ethically contentious, the fact that scientific issues surround the practice is typically ignored. The justification for using sentient animals in research relies on the alleviation of human suffering that purportedly results from such studies and that such breakthroughs cannot occur without studying whole, intact, biological systems. As all biological systems are examples of evolved complex systems, we question the ability of one evolved complex system to predict outcomes for a second. A classic claim regarding the advances in medical care arising from the use of intact sentient animals in research is the discovery and development of antibacterial agents. We give a brief overview of infectious disease research in the 19th century, then examine the history of antibacterials in the first half of the 20th century. W.. View More»

    DOI: 10.4172/2329-6577.1000109

    Abstract PDF

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