Biological Systems: Open Access

ISSN - 2329-6577


Richard H W Funk

Richard H W Funk
Institute of Anatomy and Center for Regenerative Therapies,

  • Research Article
    Ion Gradients in Tissue and Organ Biology
    Author(s): Richard H W FunkRichard H W Funk

    This Review article focuses on a general property of cells: the membrane potential and the ion gradients that arise from the segregation of charges by molecular machines like pumps, transporters and ion channels mostly situated in the plasma membrane of the cell. Such patterns are able to form tissues (e.g. in the early embryo and organs, e.g. the neural tube and the lens). Furthermore, these patterns arise in pathophysiological states like wound healing (forming e.g. a transepithelial potential) and regeneration of amputated limbs. Furthermore, not only small ions like sodium or potassium can be involved in this field patterning but also larger biomolecules like tissue factors, growth hormones, transmitters and signaling molecules like serotonin and others are driven by these gradients. By this these gradients of charged molecules coupled into classical signaling pathways hitherto de.. Read More»
    DOI: 10.4172/2329-6577.1000105

    Abstract PDF

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