Biological Systems: Open Access

ISSN - 2329-6577


Stanley Shostak

Stanley Shostak


  • Review Article
    How Cnidaria Got Its Cnidocysts
    Author(s): Stanley ShostakStanley Shostak

    A complex hypothesis is offered for the origins of cnidarian cnidocysts through symbiogeny. The two-part hypothetical pathway links the origins of tissues through an early amalgamation of amoebic and epithelial cells to and the later introduction of an extrusion apparatus from bacterial parasites. The first part of the hypothesis is based on evidence for morphological, molecular, and developmental similarities of cnidarians and myxozoans indicative of common ancestry. Support is drawn from Ediacaran fossils suggesting that stem-metazoans consisted of symbiogenic pairs of epithelial-like shells enclosing amoeba-like cells. The amoeba-like cells would have evolved into germ cells and cells differentiating as or inducing nerve, muscle, and gland cells. The second part of the hypothesis proposes that cnidocysts evolved in a cnidarian/myxozoan branch of the metazoan tree through the horizo.. View More»

    DOI: 10.4172/2329-6577.1000139

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