General Medicine: Open Access

ISSN - 2327-5146

Effect of ketogenic diet on cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Webinar on 28th International Conference on Clinical Nutrition & 7th Global Pediatric Ophthalmology Congress & 9th World Congress and Exhibition on Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

March 07, 2022 WEBINAR

Adeleh Khodabakhshi

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Scientific Tracks Abstracts: Gen Med

Abstract :

Background: In light of the mitochondrial metabolic theory, cancer could be considered a metabolic disease. It has been suggested that cancer metabolic therapies, including ketogenic diets (KD) may be useful to exploit differences in metabolism from non-neoplastic cells. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) we aimed to investigate the efficacy of KD as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cancer compared to a traditional non-ketogenic diet. Methods: In this study, databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Only RCTs that involved cancer participants that were assigned to dietary interventions including a KD group and a control group (any non-ketogenic dietary intervention) were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, and the meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model or random effects model depending on the I2 value or p-value. Results: This meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in weight (WMD = -3.58 kg; 95% CI: -6.24, -0.92; P = 0.008, BMI (WMD = -1.96 kg/m2; 95% CI: -2.83, -1.09; P �? 0.001) and fat mass (WMD = -1.90; 95% CI: -3.57, -0.24; P = 0.025) with ketogenic diet. KD significantly decreased glucose (WMD = -9.52 mg/dl; 95% CI: -13.81, -5.23; P �? 0.001) and IGF-1 (WMD = -16.27 ng/ml; 95% CI: -22.44, -10.09; P �? 0.001). Furthermore, ketogenic diet induced ketosis by increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (WMD = 0.51 mmol/l; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.91; P = 0.012). There was a non-significant pooled effect of the ketogenic diet on insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, kidney and liver function, and quality of life. Conclusion: We found that KD might result in a greater reduction in glucose, IGF-1, ketosis, weight, BMI and fat mass in cancer patients compared to traditional non-ketogenic diets. According to our data, additional well-designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate if KD can be routinely used as an adjuvant therapeutic component in cancer patients.

Biography :

I am Dr Adeleh Khodabakhshi, PhD of clinical nutrition and faculty member of Kerman University of Medical Sciences.