University of Malaya, Malaysia
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes Mellitus and (T2DM ) and coronary artery disease (CAD ) are two major lifestyle disorders in the world and share several common risk factors, mainly genetic and environmental. The single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNPs ) of the PPARγ (Pro12Ala ), ENPPI (K121Q) and CAPN-10 (SNP-63), respectively have been identified as the key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. These polymorphisms control the protein synthesis in multiple metabolic, biochemical and molecular pathways. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the ppprγ, ENPPI and CAPN-10 genes polymorphisms as genetic risk factors for T2DM and CAD in Malaysian population. Results: A total of 360 subjects between the ages of 35 and 85 years were recruited in this study. Out of the 360 subjects, 120 were T2DM patients, recruited from the outpatient clinic at UMMC, 120 were T2DM patients with CAD were recruited from the cardiac clinic at UMMC, and the other 120 were healthy hospital staff. DNA from the blood samples were extracted using QIAamp DNA mini kits. SNP of PPARγ, ENPPI, and CAPN-10, were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP ). The analysis showed that the Pro allele PPARγ ( Pro12Ala ) is a risk factor for T2DM ( OR:2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.04, p= 0.020) and T2DM+CAD ( OR:3.56, 95% CI: 1.74-7.29,P=0.001 ) among the Chinese, but not among the Malays and Indians. The K allele of ENPPI ( K121Q) and C allele of CAPN-10 (SNP-63 ) do not increase the risk of T2DM or T2DM+CAD in all the ethnic groups Conclusion: We conclude that, SNP of PPARγ (Pro12Ala ) gene could be a genetic risk factor for T2DM and CAD in the chinese population, but not in the Malay and Indian population.
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