Throughout the recent years, due to the aesthetic demands of the patients, resin composite has become a routine material, used even in larger cavities in posterior teeth. High demands on material properties, shrinkage stress development and handling properties have to be fulfilled by modern restorative systems. The practitioner is also responsible for the clinical success: The larger the restoration become, the more important is the selection of the right indication for this mode of therapy, the efforts in contamination control, the proper use of adhesives and restoratives as well as visible light curing, and the maintenance and care by the patient, supporting longevity by perfect interdental hygiene. Restorations of different sizes may show different problems in the individual treatment procedure: While in a minimal-invasive Class I the most difficult issue will be the reachability of the cavity floor by adhesives and restoratives, in an extended Class II the interdental contamination control and the anatomic reconstruction by means of layering techniques will be in the main focus. Therefore, this paper will show different indications for posterior resin composite restorations, going from small highly evidence-based indications to more extended, experimental indications as the reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth. Resin composites can serve nowadays as good aesthetic universal restoratives in a variety of indications even in posterior teeth. Nevertheless, caution has to be exercised in certain extended indications, because this is not yet a standard procedure.
Ines Willershausen has completed her studies of Dentistry at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz Germany during 2004 2009. In 2009 she worked as a research assistant at the department of Operative Dentistry at the University of Mainz. Since 2010 she started studies of Medicine at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. She is also Dr in Dentistry during the year 2010.