Morobe IC, Obi LC, Oyedeji AO, Majinda RTT, Hattori T, Idiaghe JE and Vasaikar SD
The therapeutic applications of aromatic plants used for antimicrobial purposes are well documented in ancient history. Extracts of Croton grattisimus (Burch) are used for anointing the sick, treating chest pains, coughs, fever and sexually transmitted diseases such as syphyllis. In an endeavour to establish the bioactive compounds of the plant, plant materials were collected, washed with sterile distilled water and left at room temperature for 7 days to dry. The dried material (50 g) was ground into a coarse powder using Macsalab mill. The leaves powder was then soaked in different solvents systems for 48 hr each with frequent shaking. The samples were then filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator, collected in 10 ml of the solvent, placed into small beakers and allowed to dry at room temperature. NMR spectroscopic methods were used for the structural elucidation of the active compounds. The percentage yield of C. grattisimus were, hexane (32.8 mg), dichloromethane (46.6 mg), ethylacetate (10.1 mg), methanol (61.2 mg) and water (10.6 mg). The Rf-values ranged from 0.64 to 0.70, with the most antimicrobial activity observed at 0.67 for H. influenzae and 0.64 for S. pneumoniae. The phytochemical investigations of methanolic extracts of C. grattisimus leaves led to the isolation of triterpenoids. This study reveals the characterization and structures of the non-volatile components of C. grattisimus extracts.