Abubakar Sani, Agunu A, Danmalam UH and Ibrahim Hajara
Parts of the plant or the plant as a whole has been used in most parts of the world for the treatment of various ailments; either as topical applications to treat skin diseases or prepared into infusion, decoctions or even concoctions with other herbs and consumed to either alleviate pains or treat other diseases like malaria, pile, bacterial infective HIV etc. In an attempt to standardize this plant, the pharmacognostic studies were carried out on its stem bark. Preliminary processing of the plant material was done. The stem cuttings were debarked and the barks dried in an open air under shade. The macroscopical examinations were done. The dried plant materials was then powdered using morter and pistil. The anatomical sections and powdered samples of the plant parts were investigated for their microscopical profiles. These revealed the presence of phloem tissues, parenchyma cells, cork cells, calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains and secretory ducts in the powdered bark; while the anatomical sections revealed the presence of xylem tissues. A preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some phytochemicals. A co-chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of catechol (condensed tannins).