Teklit Gebregiorgis Amabye
The objective of this study was the evaluation of phytochemical, chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial screening parameters in leaf of Rhamnus prinoides which are used to impart bitterness to local alcoholic beverages in Ethiopia and as traditional medicine in some African countries. The phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanol/water plant extracts was performed using standard phytochemical techniques for the determination of the presence of alkaloids, steroids, triterpines, tannins, flavanoids, flavones, phenols, glycosides, anthraquinones, proteins and resins. The nutritional value of samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, proteins, fat, carbohydrates and ash) using AOAC (Association of Analytical chemists procedures. The antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against Neisseria gonorrhea, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Streptococcus fecalis using broth dilution technique were determined. These were compared with those of benzyl penicillin, oxytetracycline and streptomycin as positive controls in the experiment the extract of Rhamnus prinoides was positive for tannins, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenolics compounds, saponins and resins. Alkaloids were present in the methanolic/water extract only. The methanolic/water extract of Rhamnus prinoides also shows a broad spectrum of activity against all microorganisms tested except for Neisseria gonorrheae. This shows it has a high content of protein and fiber and is low in fat. The qualities demonstrate that it is this good alternative to other food stuffs and these results serve as the basis of further scientific study into various ways of enhancing the livelihood of particular areas of northern Mekelle through increased Rhamnus prinoides domestication as well as assessing the possible bioactivity of rhamnus against certain human diseases.