Natural Products Chemistry & Research

ISSN - 2329-6836

Abstract

Standardization and Antimalarial Evaluation of Crude Methanol and Endophytic Fungiextracts of Azadirachtaindica Leaves

Nwankwo Ogechukwulucy*, Okoye FBC and Onyegbule FA

Background & objectives: Endophytes are capable of synthesizing bioactive compounds responsible for plants defense against pathogens, thus the evaluation of Azadirachtaindica antimalarial potential.

Methods: Extraction,phytochemical and physicochemical evaluation of the powdered leaves of Azadirachtaindicawas done using standard methods. Isolation of the endophytic fungi was done using malt extract agar (5 days). Fungal fermentation was done (21 days) and ethyl acetate extracted. Acute toxicity tests were performed on the crude and endophytic fungal extracts. Antimalarial curative study was done for both extracts, with artemeter-lumefantrine as positive control to evaluate the percentage curative effect (PCE). HPLC analysis was based on the retention time and UV absorption spectra.

Results: Phytochemical and physicochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins and low moisture content (7.5 %). Seven endophytic fungi were isolated. Fungal fermentation yielded an appreciable amount ofendophytic fungi. The oral acute toxicity study of the crude extract in mice revealed lethality reaction at a dose of 4472.14 mg/kg while that of the seven endophytic fungi extracts were above 5000 mg/kg. The crude extract had its highest PCE (83.3 0%) at 125 mg/kg. AMRc and AMRyendophytic extracts gave the highest PCE at 125 mg/kg (95 and 95.72 %). Artemeter-lumefantrine showed PCE of 98.62 % at 0.9 mg/kg. HPLC analysis of the endopyhtic extractsidentifiedmethyl– 2- (4-hydrophenyl) acetate, neurolenin B, aniquinazoline, palitantin, genistein, procynanidin and pipernonaline. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated the antimalarial potentials of Azadirachtaindica which may be exploited in the management of malarial infections.

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