Journal of Kidney

ISSN - 2472-1220

Review Article - (2021) Volume 7, Issue 10

A Review on Cytomegalovirus Effect on Kidney Transplant Recipient

Sudesh Chatergee*
*Correspondence: Sudesh Chatergee, Department of Nephrology, Banaras Hindu University, India, Email:

Author info »


Cytomegalovirus contamination is a regular inconvenience after transplantation. This contamination happens because of transmission from the relocated organ, because of reactivation of dormant contamination, or after an essential contamination in seronegative patients and can be characterized as follows: inert contamination, dynamic contamination, viral condition or obtrusive infection. This condition happens predominantly somewhere in the range of 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic foundational microorganism transplantation specifically, contamination typically happens inside the initial 30 days after transplantation and within the sight of join versus-have illness. The significant danger factors are the point at which the beneficiary is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the contributor is seropositive just as when lymphocyte-exhausting antibodies are utilized.


Cytomegalovirus, Organ Transplantation


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a universal herpes infection that contaminates up to 60−100% of individuals in adulthood, and it is one of the primary specialists engaged with irresistible intricacies after transplantation. CMV, comparably to other herpes infections, builds up an inert disease after beginning contamination. In the immunocompetent host, the underlying contamination is for the most part asymptomatic however may present as an undefined febrile, influenza like or mononucleosis-like condition. In uncommon cases, the disease presents as a fundamental disorder, influencing numerous organs. Moreover, immunocompetent grown-ups may introduce a clinical condition sometime down the road because of reactivation of idle infection or because of new contamination by another viral strain [1]. The sickness brought about by post-relocate CMV (PT-CMV) happens because of transmission from the relocated organ, because of reactivation of idle disease, or after an essential contamination in seronegative transfer patients.

CMV contamination and sickness can be characterized as follows:

Dormant Contamination: After the underlying safe reaction, the infection perseveres in an idle state, predominantly in myeloid genealogy cells, and utilizes different components to dodge the safe framework and to endure.

Dynamic Contamination: The presence of viral replication, analyzed by developing the infection in vitro; by the revelation of intracytoplasmic and intranuclear incorporations, which are qualities of the infection; by viral distinguishing proof by means of tissue staining of biopsy material; or by the disclosure of proof of viral replication recognized by antigenemia test or atomic techniques.

Sickness: Proof of a contamination with manifestations ascribed to it.

Viral Condition: The presence of signs and side effects of illness and the affirmation of viral replication in the fringe blood (identified by antigenemia measure or sub-atomic methods).

Intrusive Infection: The presence of explicit manifestations in an objective organ and histological discoveries exhibiting the cytopathic impact of the infection in tissue. In these occasions, there might possibly be proof of viral replication in the fringe blood.


Analysis of the contamination brought about by CMV has advanced impressively as of late. There are two techniques used to analyze dynamic CMV contamination: the pp65 antigenemia measure and polymerase chain response (PCR), which can be utilized for the early recognition of CMV viral replication [2]. Notwithstanding, there is an inclination to supplant the antigenemia examine with sub-atomic strategies, especially in checking CMV viral replication after transplantation.


Prophylaxis is the organization of antiviral medications to all patients (widespread prophylaxis) or to a subgroup of patients at higher danger of viral replication (explicit prophylaxis) for a foreordained timeframe in cases with an expanded event of viral replication after transplantation. This methodology ought to be started as right on time as could really be expected. A postponed beginning of disease might happen after the cessation of prophylaxis, and there is proof of a lower CMV occurrence after prophylaxis suspension following a more drawn out time of medication utilize [3]. Albeit no agreement has been reached in regards to the time of antiviral use, prophylaxis is normally directed for 3 to a half year post-transplantation. There is additionally a propensity to suggest observing of the power of CMV viral replication after the finish of the prophylaxis time frame during the primary year post-relocate. The antivirals utilized are ganciclovir (intravenous and additionally oral) and valganciclovir. Then again, oral valacyclovir might be utilized.

Extreme Situations

Hematopoietic undeveloped cell transplantation: CMV reactivation may occur in 30% of HSCT patients and in up to 70% of high-risk patients, such as those with positive serology who received a transplant from a negative donor. In total, 30% of patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation and approximately 5% of those undergoing autologous transplantation develop CMV disease. In HSCT, reactivation for the most part happens inside the initial 30 days after transplantation and in the individuals who foster GVHD. CMV can be reactivated all through the whole time of immunosuppressive medication use. Mortality in patients who foster pneumonia or spread sickness might reach 90% [4]. CMV reactivation can likewise present as an engraftment delay. Preemptive treatment decreases the occurrence of the sickness and the mortality of this specialist in this tolerant populace.

Lung transplantation: The rate of CMV contamination and illness is higher in lung transplantation beneficiaries than in other SOT beneficiaries, with an occurrence of 54% to 92% in patients without CMV prophylaxis. Notwithstanding immediate dismalness and mortality, CMV disease has been related with scenes of intense cell dismissal just as with persistent allograft brokenness, which is the super restricting component for the drawn out accomplishment of lung transplantation [5]. Albeit no review has looked at prophylaxis and preemptive treatment in lung transplantation, the high recurrence of these intricacies post-relocate utilizes CMV prophylaxis fundamental in lung relocate beneficiaries.


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Author Info

Sudesh Chatergee*
Department of Nephrology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Citation: Chatergee S (2021) E A Review on Cytomegalovirus Effect on Kidney Transplant Recipient. J Kidney 7:249. doi-10.35248/2472-1220.21.7.249.

Received: 05-Oct-2021 Published: 26-Oct-2021, DOI: 10.35248/2472-1220.21.7.249

Copyright: © 2021 Chatergee S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.