Journal of Kidney

ISSN - 2472-1220

Short Communication - (2021) Volume 7, Issue 7

Medullary Sponge Kidney

Saketh Sanyasirao*
*Correspondence: Saketh Sanyasirao, Department Of Nephrology, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences,, India, Email:

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Medullary wipe kidney is a considerate innate irregularity that was first portrayed in 1939 by Lendarduzzi [1]. Anatomically it is described by cystic dilatation of the renal medullary gathering channels. These various little growths range in measurement from 1 to 8 millimeters and give the kidney, when cut, the presence of a wipe, hence the name.

Medullary wipe kidney is typically two-sided however can influence just a single kidney. The condition is two-sided in 70% of cases, and it is a moderately uncommon problem with a predominance of around 1/5,000 populace. It is normally asymptomatic yet can give hematuria, urinary plot diseases (UTIs), or renal stone arrangement. The period of show is typically 20 to 30 years of age.

Recognizing medullary wipe kidney from medullary nephrocalcinosis is significant. Medullary wipe kidney is one of a few normal reasons for medullary nephrocalcinosis. Medullary nephrocalcinosis is characterized as the statement of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Different reasons for medullary nephrocalcinosis incorporate hyperparathyroidism, renal cylindrical acidosis type I, hypervitaminosis D, milk-antacid disorder, and sarcoidosis [2].


Medullary wipe kidney has no known reason. Most cases are inconsistent. A few cases are thought to run in families, however there is no known explicit hereditary reason and it's anything but for the most part viewed as inheritable albeit around five percent of the cases are genetic and autosomal predominant [2,3]. There is a relationship between medullary wipe kidney and BeckwithWiedemann disorder. A few examinations additionally propose a potential connection among hyperparathyroidism and medullary wipe kidney [4]. Other related irregularities related with medullary wipe kidney incorporate Wilms tumor, horseshoe kidney, RabsonMendenhall sndrome, Cakut condition, polycystic renal illness. and Caroli's infection. The rate is comparable among racial and ethnic gatherings. There is a relationship between medullary wipe kidney and hemihyperplasia, recently known as hemihypertrophy, which is an issue where one side of the body becomes essentially more than the opposite side. A few instances of medullary wipe kidney have changes in the quality for glial cell-determined neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET). In medullary wipe kidney, the essential irregularity is the dilatation of the medullary and papillary bits of the gathering conduits. The expanded pipe regularly discusses proximally with a gathering pipe that is of typical size.


The actual growths regularly measure 1 to 8 millimeters in width and contain clear, jam like material. Little calculi are regularly present. The kidney may seem extended with the inclusion of different papillae. The specific pathogenesis of medullary wipe kidney is hazy. During embryogenesis, a disturbance in the ureteric bud–metanephros interface has been proposed as a potential reason.

Anomalies in embryogenesis of the distal nephrons brings about gathering tubule widening and sore development. This causes distal cylindrical acidosis and nephrocalcinosis from pee fixation abandons which drives straightforwardly to hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria (regularly renal break type) and stone development [5]. About 70% of patients with medullary wipe kidney will foster urinary stones.


The gathering pipes of the medullary and papillary bits of the kidney are straightforwardly engaged with issue. On net pathology, the pimples by large measure under 1 centimeter and are inside the renal pyramids. On histology, there are widened papillary gathering channels. These widened papillary gathering channels are fixed with straightened or cuboidal epithelium. Inside the pimple, there might be irritation and additionally calculi. The cortex of the kidney is typical and unaffected [6].

History and Physical

Patients with medullary wipe kidney for the most part are asymptomatic. In indicative patients, hematuria, renal colic, fever, and dysuria are the most well-known introducing side effects. Net hematuria has been accounted for in about 10% to 20% of patients. Entanglements like nephrolithiasis, renal calculi, and urinary plot contaminations might be seen. Patients are inclined to renal calculi on account of urinary balance, hypercalciuria, expanded danger of UTIs and distal renal rounded acidosis.

A few patients will portray constant renal torment with no conspicuous disease, obstacle, hydronephrosis or stones. The etiology of this torment is muddled however could be because of gathering tubule ductal deterrents from mineral attachments. The finding regularly is made by radiologic studies, for example, renal ultrasound and CT urogram and, once in a while, plain stomach films including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder [7].


Renal ultrasound will show trademark echogenic medullary pyramids, yet ultrasound is a very technologist subordinate methodology which can without much of a stretch miss the analysis whenever performed by unpracticed work force. At intravenous urography (IVU), an exemplary paintbrush-like appearance inside the enlarged medullary gathering pipes is trademark, however this test is presently not utilized in most clinical practices [8].

Multidetector contrast CT urography will show a particular papillary become flushed. On deferred imaging from a CT urogram, the trademark finding of medullary wipe kidney is equal striations from contrast which reach out from the papilla to the medulla and continue on postponed imaging. CT can likewise distinguish related difficulties like hydronephrosis, calculi, and pyelonephritis.

Treatment and Management

Treatment comprises of dealing with the intricacies of medullary wipe kidney. For UTIs, anti-infection agents and careful individual cleanliness rehearses are suggested. For calcium stones, starting suggestions incorporate a high liquid admission adequate to produce 2000 mL of pee each day. As a general rule, an eating routine that is low in sodium, ordinary in calcium, high in potassium, and low to typical in protein might be useful. A 24- hour pee test is prescribed to assist with upgrading the urinary science in roused patients with medullary wipe kidney who foster stones. These patients will in general have a higher frequency of renal hole type hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia than most calcium stone formers. In the event that this is affirmed by the 24-hour pee test, these problems can be treated with thiazide diuretics for the hypercalciuria and potassium citrate supplements for the hypocitraturia.


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Author Info

Saketh Sanyasirao*
Department Of Nephrology, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences,, India

Citation: Sanyasirao S, (2021) Medullary Sponge Kidney. J Kidney 7:206. doi- 10.35248/2472-1220.21.7.232.

Received: 08-Jul-2021 Published: 29-Jul-2021

Copyright: © 2021 Sanyasirao S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.